References 1. Taguchi A (2009) Alveolar density measurement and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Osteoporosis Int. doi:10.1007/s00198-009-1094-8 2. Takaishi Y, Ikeo T, Nakajima M, Miki T, Fujita T (2009) A pilot case–control study on the alveolar bone density measurement in risk assessment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Osteoporosis Int. doi:10.1007/s00198-009-1021-z”
“Background Acute promyelocytic
leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in USA [1, AZD5582 clinical trial 2]. APL is a blood cancer that affects all age groups of people and strikes about 1,500 patients selleck chemicals in the United States each year . Initially, APL was treated with conventional chemotherapy method by using cytarabine and daunorubicin to achieve complete remissions (CRs) in approximately 70% of patients having 5-year disease-free survival of 35–45% [4, 5]. All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has brought revolutionary change for APL patients treatment. Combination of ATRA plus an anthracycline, with or without cytarabine achieved remission rates of nearly 90% for APL patients . Although many therapeutic advances such as combined chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem
cell transplantation have been made to improve the survival rate of APL patients, a higher proportion of patients relapse and hence do not Crenigacestat datasheet undergo complete remission. Also, because of the growing Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase evidence of resistance to ATRA treatment of APL patients , the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved arsenic trioxide (ATO) for APL patient treatment in September 2000 on the basis of several human clinical trials showing very promising results . ATO is a drug of choice for the treatment of both relapsed and refractory APL patients. It is used alone or combination with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to achieve
complete remission and maximum survival rate [8, 9]. Existing evidence has shown that APL patients treated with ATO achieved complete remission with high survival rate without ATRA combination . In a Phase II clinical trial study, it was reported that these APL patients treated with ATO alone observed a high rate of 5-years disease free survival (DFS) and an overall survival (OS) . Few reports have suggested that ATO inhibits proliferation of human myeloma cells by cell cycle arrest  and induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells by phosphotidylserine externalization as well as DNA laddering . ATO is a clastogenic/genotoxic compound. It has been shown to induce DNA damage/mutation in cultured mouse lymphoma cells  and bone marrow cells of Sprague–Dawley rats .