Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were seeded on the decellularized bone/bone marrows and cultured for 21 days. The adhesion of rMSCs on or into decellularized bone/bone marrows was confirmed and proliferated over time in culture. The osteogenic differentiation effect of decellularized bone/bone marrows on rMSCs Akt inhibitor in the presence
or absence of dexamethasone was investigated. Decellularized bone/bone marrows without dexamethasone significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, indicating promoted osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs. In an animal study, when decellularized bone/bone marrows were implanted into the rat subcutaneous, no immune reaction occurred and clusters of the hematopoietic cells could be observed, suggesting the decellularized bone/bone marrows can provide a microenvironment in vivo. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Higher throughput thermodynamic
measurements can provide value in structure-based drug P005091 discovery during fragment screening, hit validation, and lead optimization Enthalpy can be used to detect and characterize ligand binding, and changes that affect the interaction of protein and ligand can sometimes be detected more readily from changes in the enthalpy of binding than from the corresponding free-energy changes or from protein-ligand structures Newer higher throughput calorimeters are being incorporated into the drug discovery process Improvements in titration calorimeters come from extensions of a mature technology and face limitations Birinapant in vitro in scaling Conversely, array calorimetry, an emerging technology, shows promise for substantial improvements in throughput and material utilization but improved sensitivity is needed”
“Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), the universal water channel, is responsible for rapid response of cell volume to changes in plasma tonicity. In the membrane of the red cell the concentration of the protein is tightly controlled. Here, we show that AQP-1 is partially lost during in vitro maturation of mouse reticulocytes and that it is associated with exosomes, released throughout this process. AQP-1 in young reticulocytes localizes to the plasma membrane and also
in endosomal compartments and exosomes, formed both in vitro and in vivo. During maturation a part of the total pool of AQP-1 is differentially sorted and released via the exosomal pathway. A proteasome inhibitor, MG132, suppresses secretion of AQP-1, implying that ubiquitination is a sorting signal for its release. We further show that modulation of medium tonicity in vitro regulates the secretion of AQP-1, thus showing that extracellular osmotic conditions can drive sorting of selected proteins by the exosomal pathway. These results lead us to suggest that AQP-1 sorting into exosomes may be the mechanism by which the reticulocyte adapts to environmental changes during its maturation. (Blood. 2009;114:3928-3934)”
“JS-2 is a novel gene located at 5p15.