In the case of iron, results are even more inconsistent. In P. aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae, iron limitation hinders biofilm formation whereas it facilitates the process in Actinomyces naeslundii and Staphylococcus epidermidis [15, 16]. It has been suggested that variation in effects of these factors on biofilm formation by particular species of bacteria may be reflection of the different environmental niches
where they live [14, 17–19]. Shewanella click here oneidensis MR-1, a facultative Gram-negative anaerobe with a remarkable respiratory versatility, has been extensively studied for its biofilm development [20–26]. However, little progress has been made to understand biological mechanisms of pellicle formation. This work represents the initial steps in characterizing the process in S. oneidensis. We showed that successful pellicle formation required the availability of oxygen and the presence of certain metal cations. A further analysis on metal cations revealed that Fe(II) and Fe(III) were not as essential as Ca(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) for pellicle formation. In addition, results presented demonstrated that a type I secretion pathway of S. oneidensis is required for the pellicle development SAHA HDAC manufacturer but not for attachment to abiotic surface. Results Characteristics of S. oneidensis growth in still media under aerobic conditions The S. oneidensis
MR-1 cells grew rapidly in LB in a flask when aeration of the media was provided by vigorously shaking, with a doubling time of approximately 40 min at the room temperature (Figure 1A). Such growth eventually led to formation of the solid surface-associated (SSA) biofilms on the flask wall, especially around the A-L interface. Cells in static media accessible to ambient air, however, displayed a different growth pattern. Before pellicles were formed, cells lived in the planktonic form with a much longer doubling time, approximately
2.6 h (Figure 1A). Once pellicle formation initiated, some of the planktonic cells started Tacrolimus (FK506) to form pellicles while the rest remained in the planktonic form. During the development of pellicles, the planktonic cells grew at a much lower rate with a doubling time of approximately 6 h (Figure 1A). In this study, initiation of pellicle formation was determined by the time point where the growth rate of the planktonic cells changed although pellicles visible to naked eyes appeared much later, about 12 hours after inoculation at the room temperature. Both complex and defined media supported pellicle formation of S. oneidensis. However, pellicles from LB were thick and fairly uniform compared to thin and porous ones from the defined medium, indicating an impact of nutrition on pellicle formation (Figure 1B). We therefore chose LB through the rest of this study unless otherwise noted.