Finally, knowledge-driven gene expression-based predictors can be

Finally, knowledge-driven gene expression-based predictors can be translated into assays that are simpler and more robust than measurement of transcript abundance for many genes. Gene expression predictors have historically been limited by a lack of reproducibility between experiments [10, 25]. This is thought to be related to the high variance of individual gene measurements commonly seen in datasets of relatively few replicates. This variance results in discordance between lists of predictive genes even in high quality experiments. Using a larger set of genes rather than a small

number of genes may Trichostatin A provide some degree of robustness lacking in single gene level predictors. Indeed several platforms have now been developed [26, 27] that allow focused sets of genes to be profiled at high throughput and low cost. Moreover, because gene set based predictors Lumacaftor can identify not just predictive genes but predictive biological processes, this approach could overcome the limits of predicting clinical responses by measuring gene expression. For instance, our analysis shows that signatures associated with cellular proliferation are predictive of a protective antibody response. It would be relatively easy to translate

this to a flow-cytometry based assay of cellular proliferation in PBMCs using Ki67 staining, for example, that could rapidly be applied to many samples. In contrast, developing and validating a multigene predictive signature of unknown biological significance may prove to be more significantly more complex. Future studies will be required to determine how successfully biological processes discovered by gene set based approaches can

be deployed as simpler, more robust diagnostic tools. Gene set based predictors predicated on biological knowledge may therefore provide a sensitive, relevant, and robust analysis of the human immune response. We analyzed two existing datasets of gene expression profiles of PBMC Sorafenib in vivo from vaccinated subjects: raw Affymetrix array data for subjects vaccinated with YF-17D from Gene Expression Omnibus with the accession number GSE13486 [4], and raw Affymetrix array data from subjects vaccinated with influenza TIV with accession number GSE29619 [16]. The Genepattern module “CollapseDataset” was used to extract the expression values of genes from the raw data file and to map Affymetrix probes to gene symbols [28]. Then we applied quantile normalization and a log2 transformation. The final transformed data were used for the single sample GSEA projection (see below). For analysis of data from the influenza vaccinated subjects, gene expression fold change was calculated as the ratio of expression levels from PBMC profiles day 7 (postvaccine)/day 0 (prevaccine).

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