Failures of these regulatory mechanisms contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study we demonstrate that the frequency of CD8+ Foxp3+ T cells is reduced in the peripheral blood of patients with ulcerative colitis. As these cells might play a currently underestimated role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, we have investigated human and murine CD8+ Foxp3+ T cells generated by this website stimulating
naive CD8+ T cells in the presence of transforming growth factor-β and retinoic acid, mediators that are abundantly produced in the intestinal mucosa. These CD8+ Foxp3+ fully competent regulatory T cells show strong expression of regulatory molecules CD25, Gpr83 and CTLA-4 and exhibit cell–cell contact-dependent immunosuppressive activity in vitro. Our study illustrates a previously unappreciated critical role of CD8+ Foxp3+ T cells in controlling potentially dangerous T cells and in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Regulatory T cells are believed to play a crucial role in the bowel’s adjustments to microbial antigens and in the modulation of tissue-damaging find more immune reactions; therefore, these cells are regarded as a promising
new therapeutic target.1 The most prominent population of regulatory T cells is the CD4+ subset. Various populations of thymically or peripherally induced regulatory T cells, such as CD4+ CD25+ T cells,2 CD4+ CD45RBlow T cells,3 type 1 regulatory T (Treg1) cells,4 and type 3 helper T (Th3) cells,5 have been L-gulonolactone oxidase described for the control of intestinal inflammation. However, less attention has been given to the inhibitory capability of CD8+ T cells, and, although several types of CD8+ regulatory T cells with various phenotypes seem to exist in humans and in experimental animals,6–11 the nature of the primary CD8+ regulatory T cells and the mechanisms underlying their generation remain elusive. Some populations of CD8+ regulatory T cells are believed
to be involved in the control of mucosal immune responses. An experimental model mimicking inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) uses the injection of CD4+ CD45RBhigh T cells into syngeneic mice deficient in the recombination activation gene 2 (Rag-2) to generate inflammation of the gut mucosa. In this model, Ménager-Marcq et al. demonstrated that CD8+ CD28− T cells, but not CD8+ CD28+ T cells, freshly isolated from the spleen or the gut efficiently prevent the development of colitis.12 In addition, Ho et al. identified a subset of CD8+ regulatory T cells characterized by CD8+ CD44−CD103high expression.13 Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from mice that over-express tumour necrosis factor-α into immunodeficient Rag−/− mice induces ileitis, but co-transfer of CD8+ CD44−CD103+ T cells from wild-type mice attenuates the ileitis histology.