Every minute, researchers encouraged subjects to continue walking and informed them of the time elapsed, using standardised phrases (ATS 2002). Participants were allowed to stop and rest during the test, but were instructed to continue the test as soon as possible. Dyspnoea and fatigue were rated by the participant at rest (after sitting for at least 15 minutes, preceding the 6MWT) and directly after exercise, using a laminated

modified Borg scale ranging from 0 (nothing at all) to 10 (very, very severe). At the same times, heart rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured using a finger pulse oximeterc. All selleck chemicals llc tests were supervised by the same researcher (EB). For each participant, the 6MWD was defined as the greater distance achieved on the two tests (ATS 2002). The better test was identified for both the 10 m course and the 30 m course. The number of participants for the study was based on an estimated mean standard deviation of 103 metre (Puhan et al 2008, Sciurba et al 2003), an estimated correlation coefficient

between 6MWD on a 30 m course versus on a 10 m course of r = 0.7, and a predicted mean difference of 35 m, reasoning that a difference in 6MWD larger than the most conservative minimal important difference will justify new reference equations for a 10 m course (Puhan et al 2008). Consequentially, the number of patients with COPD needed (with Ð = 0.05 and 1 – Ð = 0.80) was 45 subjects. Data were presented as means (SD) for normally distributed variables and medians (5th to 95th percentile) for those with non-normal distribution. Data of all buy Talazoparib subjects (n = 45) were checked for missing values, distribution (with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality), and outliers. Pearson correlation coefficients, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCconsistency), Standard Errors of Measurement (SEMconsistency) and Bland-Altman plots were produced for the two 6MWTs over the 10 m course, for the better 6MWD over the 10 m and 30 m course, and for the deviation between measured and predicted 6MWD. The difference between 6MWD over the 10 m and 30 m

course was analysed using a one-tailed t-test, expecting a one-sided effect in favour of the longer course length based on the existing literature Casein kinase 1 (Enright 2003, Ng et al 2011, Ng et al 2013). Deviations of measured 6MWD compared to predicted distances (%pred), based on existing reference equations in similar-aged Caucasian populations and with similar submaximal effort (ie, comparable to study population) were used to understand the impact of course length on the use of reference equations (Gibbons et al 2001, Hill et al 2011, Jenkins et al 2009, Troosters et al 1999). The range of differences in %predvalues for the 6MWT over a 10 m course were given as well as the average %pred6MWD to compare both course lengths.