Different types of fat depots exhibit different properties, and t

Different types of fat depots exhibit different properties, and their anatomic location is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and other conditions [91]. The current evidence demonstrates biological and genetic differences between adipose tissues depending on their anatomic location. Specifically, the upper body/visceral fat distribution in obesity is closely associated with metabolic complications [87]. Intra-abdominal tissues are metabolically and functionally different from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and exhibit a higher

capillary density, sympathetic PI3K inhibition innervation and adrenergic receptor expression [55]. Intra-abdominal tissues release more free fatty acids, glycerol and endocrine hormones into the portal venous system and have direct access to the liver, whereas those derived from SAT are secreted into the systemic circulation [55] and [91]. In our

study, the circulating levels of HDL and VLDL were not significantly altered by the hypercaloric diet and/or chronic stress. The animals subjected to the hypercaloric diet model demonstrated an increase in LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, similar to the findings in earlier studies using the cafeteria diet [8] and [51]. Studies in humans and animals subjected to chronic stress have been linked to increased levels of serum cholesterol [29] and [85], and the results of our six-week restraint stress selleck chemicals llc Myosin protocol confirms the association between stress and cholesterol. The high leptin levels found with the exposure to the high-calorie diet may be related to an increase in fatty tissues, especially visceral fat accumulation, because leptin is synthesized mainly in these tissues [19]. Adipose tissue secretes

signaling molecules that play a central role in weight regulation and metabolic function [108]. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that signals the status of energy stores in the peripheral tissues to the brain [33], affecting feeding behavior and metabolism [50]. This peptide plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy consumption, glucose metabolism, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and the secretion of insulin and the pituitary hormone [2]. In addition, growing evidence suggests that leptin may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction, and chronic hyperleptinemia may increase the risk of cardiac disorders [54]. The circulating leptin levels are proportional to the total amount of the adipose tissue mass, and leptin binds to receptors within specific hypothalamic nuclei to regulate energy balance by reducing appetite [114]. Leptin acts in association with other neuropeptides, such as NPY, which increases food consumption and decreases energy expenditure [3].

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