Depression is a common psychiatric disorder affecting individuals across the life span. Although the “”monoamine hypothesis”" of depression has long been proposed, the pathologies and mechanisms for depressive disorders remain only partially understood. Pharmacotherapies targeting the monoaminergic pathways have been the mainstay in treating depression. Additional therapeutic approaches focusing other pathological mechanisms of depression are currently being explored.
Interestingly, a number of proposed mechanisms for depression appear to be similar to those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. For example,
diminishing neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammation observed in depression are found to be associated with the development of AD. This article first provides a concise review of AD and depression, PD0332991 cost then discusses the putative links between the two neuropsychiatric conditions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
“Purpose: We evaluated the association of the resistive index of the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/XAV-939.html prostate capsular arteries and bladder outlet obstruction severity in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 74 patients histologically diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were ultimately enrolled in this prospective study. Urodynamics were performed by a urologist to determine bladder Plasmin outlet obstruction. Baseline parameters measured in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were the prostate capsular artery resistive index, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, total prostate and transition zone volume, and the transition zone index. ROC curves were produced to
calculate the ROC AUC and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the prostate capsular artery resistive index, International Prostate Symptom Score, obstructive symptoms, total prostate and transition zone volume, and the transition zone index for bladder outlet obstruction.
Results: Significant difference between patients with and without bladder outlet obstruction was observed in the resistive index, which showed the highest coefficient with the degree of obstruction (r = 0.712, p <0.0001). At a cutoff of 0.69 the resistive index distinguished patients with and without bladder outlet obstruction with 78% sensitivity and 86.4% specificity. The prostate capsular artery resistive index had the maximum AUC of 0.823.
Conclusions: The prostate capsular artery resistive index is significantly higher in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia related bladder outlet obstruction than in those without such obstruction. The resistive index might serve as a novel indicator to diagnose and assess bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.