CrossRef 17 Wang T, Wu H, Chen C, Liu C: Growth, optical, and el

CrossRef 17. Wang T, Wu H, Chen C, Liu C: Growth, optical, and electrical properties of nonpolar m-plane ZnO on p-Si substrates with Al 2 O 3 buffer layers. Appl Phys Lett 2012,

100:011901.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZWA fabricated the ZnO thin films, performed the measurements of the TEM, and wrote the manuscript. YW grew the ZnO nanoflowers. HW analyzed the results, performed the measurements of the SEM, and wrote the manuscript. TW helped to measure the PL spectra. CC helped to grow ZnO films. YX selleck chemicals llc helped in the TEM measurement. CL supervised the overall study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In recent years, semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) was noticed as a potential photosensitizer in the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT) due to its low toxicity, high stability, excellent biocompatibility, Roscovitine chemical structure and photoreactivity [1–4]. The electrons in the valence band of TiO2 can be excited to the conduction band by ultraviolet (UV) radiation with the wavelength shorter than 387 nm (corresponding to 3.2 eV as the band

gap energy of anatase TiO2), thus resulting in the photoinduced hole-electron pairs. These photoinduced electrons and holes can interact with surrounding H2O or O2 molecules and generate various reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide anion radical O2  ·−[5], hydroxyl IMP dehydrogenase radical OH · [6], singlet oxygen 1O2[7], and hydrogen peroxide H2O2[8]), which can react with biological molecules, such as lipids,

proteins, and DNA, cause their damages, and eventually kill cancer cells [1, 9, 10]. However, the pure TiO2 can only be excited by UV light which is harmful and hinders its practical applications [11]. Fortunately, recent studies have reported that the optical absorption of TiO2 in the visible region could be improved by doping [12–14] or dye-adsorbed methods [15, 16], which will facilitate the application of TiO2 as a photosensitizer for PDT. In our previous study [10], we enhanced the visible light absorption of TiO2 by nitrogen doping and found that the nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) showed much higher visible-light-induced photokilling HDAC inhibitor effects on cancer cells than the pure TiO2. Although great efforts have been made to prepare doped TiO2 with visible light absorption, the underlying mechanism of the killing effects of photoactivated TiO2 on cancer cells has not yet been investigated in details. It is unclear how the TiO2 interacts with the cancer cells, and what are the differences for their photokilling effects between pure and doped TiO2. For possible medical applications of N-TiO2, it is of crucial importance to understand the killing effect of N-TiO2 on cancer cells and the mechanism of cell damages induced by PDT.

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