Conversely, in our case, a significant red shift is observed, and hence, we might ignore the blueshift caused by the Coulomb interaction in these transitions. (c) The GaN used in this study is n-doped and has a carrier density of 2 × 1018 cm−3;
thus, the red shift might be due to the presence of an impurity band generated from doping concentrations . (d) The potential fluctuations model, on the other hand, explains Salubrinal order this large red shift in the PL with increasing excitation power. It is known that the crystalline orientation distortions cause effective bandgap dispersion and thus creates lateral potential fluctuations. Vacancies, impurities, dangling bonds, and strain and structural defects all introduce these fluctuations [18, 19]. In our case, the material underwent chemical electroless etching from which a different structural shape and strain in the NPs arises . This coalescence of the NPs induces the formation of boundary dislocations, Selleckchem PRN1371 and additionally, the preferential etching increases the impurity and vacancy
defect concentration . The bandgap dispersion in NPs creates local potential minima where carriers recombine  (Figure 4). Upon low excitation power, non-equilibrium electrons and holes are generated and move towards the conduction band minima and valence band maxima, respectively. While in the as-grown GaN, at room temperature, FX transitions are intense. After etching, acceptor-like sites are created in the surface and a small red shift is induced due to the GSK126 in vitro increase of donor-to-valence band and DAP transitions. When we increase the excitation power, more electrons get excited in the conduction band, inducing an electric field screening effect and band flattening in the fluctuated potential bands. As a consequence of these effects, the carrier lifetime is longer and excited carriers have more time to reach lower energy localized states. Electrons overcome the lowered potential barriers (presented by the small red arrow in Figure 4) and get trapped in the deep localized potential minima, where
the blue luminescence is stronger. This can be understood if we recall that the wave function of electrons in these local minima is relatively quite spatially extended and thus can easily overlap with the wave function of holes bound MTMR9 in the acceptor-like sites, increasing the probability of such a transition. There may exist many lower energy states and donor trap sites; this recombination would increase the emission linewidth. Figure 4 Schematic representations of potential fluctuation and surface states caused by defects and band distortion. (a) Bulk GaN. (b) NP thoroughly depleted at low excitation power/low temperature. (c) NP with high carrier concentration at high excitation power/high temperature has a surface depletion region with small width. Arrows indicate recombination of free electrons and bound holes.