Consequently, the test should not be applied in population with a

Consequently, the test should not be applied in population with a high rate of endogamy. Non-invasive prenatal testing to establishing paternity, MEK inhibitor which is

currently commercially offered, has been criticized due to its ethical issues [33], [34] and [35]. Some authors states that a pregnant women would intente on testing to determine whether she will continue the pregnancy [33]. It has been suggested to counsel the women involved about the relative significance of biological kinship [33]. At the same time, some authors classify this approach as morally problematic [31]. On the other hand, women could feel compelled to terminate the pregnancy anyhow without paternity testing or women could feel compelled to continue the pregnancy with the consequence of having a child fathered by the wrong man. Prenatal paternity testing may, therefore, lead to the least harm for the woman involved and be morally justified [31] and [36]. In conclusion, here we described that male fetal Y-STR can be retrieved from maternal plasma by using complementary multiplex

system (Powerplex Y23, Yfiler and two in-house mini Y-STR systems), and it can be used to link the child to the alleged father male lineage early in pregnancy. We would like to thank Janete Ana Ribeiro Vaz for her contribution to this work. Sabin laboratory and institute funded this study. “
“Obtaining forensic DNA profiles of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci using PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is still the gold standard. However, routine use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) for forensic genomics is on the horizon. MPS technologies do not rely on size separation and thus relieve the limitation on locus multiplexing that is present

in CE [1] and [2]. MPS therefore creates enhanced possibilities within forensic genomics for analyzing degraded samples, mixed samples, and in dealing with kinship or population substructure [3] and [4]. Forensic bioinformaticians second have been working on several algorithms to process MPS forensic STR data: lobSTR [5], RepeatSeq [6], STRait Razor [7], TSSV [8] and the MyFLq-framework [9]. LobSTR and RepeatSeq are both genome wide STR aligners, and therefore outside of the scope of forensic analysis in its current legal and technological setting, in which targeted sequencing of a limited number of validated loci are investigated. STRait Razor, TSSV and MyFLq are instead locus-centric, and operate on forensical loci. They require configuration information for each locus in the set, generally consisting of the repeat length of the locus, primer and/or flank sequences, and known alleles for the locus. All three programs have a similar approach to processing the STR data, which is represented in a flowchart in Fig. 1. To date, algorithms in these programs process data to the point of presenting allele candidates (step preceding the dashed red arrow in Fig. 1).

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