3) showed a higher homology of TsNP for both, human and rat CNP

3) showed a higher homology of TsNP for both, human and rat CNP. Based on this result, a higher affinity of TsNP for NPR-B and NPR-C is expected. NPR-B has approximately a 50-fold higher affinity for CNP than ANP. CNP essentially does not bind to NPR-A but, it binds to NPR-B and NPR-C with similar affinities (Schulz, 2005). The effects of TsNP on the isolated perfused rat

kidney were similar to those reported by Evangelista et al. (2008) for a natriuretic peptide from C. durissus cascavella venom. In the same perfusion system, ANP also showed an increase in GFR and urine flow, with no effect in the perfusion pressure. The urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride were increased by the TsNP treatment, as has been shown for ANP, guanylin and urodilatin ( Santos-Neto et al., 2006). The concentration of cGMP in the urine ALK inhibitor was elevated as would be expected for a guanylate cyclase activating drug. CD-NP, a chimeric natriuretic peptide, has been shown to enhance GFR, Stem Cell Compound Library research buy producing diuresis and natriuresis ( Lisy et al., 2008). Fonteles

et al. (2009) showed a reduction in NPR-A expression accompanied by an increase in GC-C expression in animals receiving a high-salt diet and treated with uroguanylin (a GC-C agonist). This observation corroborates with our data, which showed that GC-C expression was elevated while NPR-A expression was down regulated following treatment with TsNP. These effects point to a possible activation of GC-C by TsNP. However, Anand-Srivastava (2005) Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 demonstrated another possible relationship, which could explain NPR-A down regulation and link the up regulation of TGFβ-1 and NPR-C, with the down regulation of NPR-A. These results were also observed in our studies. The increased concentration of cGMP in the urine points to the activation of guanylate cyclase, as occurs after NPR-B and GC-C activation. NPR-C could play a role in the increased perfusion pressure caused by TsNP. NPR-C has three distinct signaling pathways, which involve the activation of eNOS, MAPK-1 and phospholipase C (PLC) (Anand-Srivastava,

2005). For this reason, the gene expression of eNOS and MAPK-1 following TsNP treatment were also tested. TsNP treatment resulted in down regulation of eNOS expression, whereas MAPK-1 expression was not changed. This result possibly excludes the involvement of these two NPR-C signaling pathways in the biological actions of TsNP. Thus, activation of PLC downstream might explain the augmentation of the perfusion pressure through direct vascular smooth muscle contraction (Anand-Srivastava, 2005). In conclusion, this work describes the isolation and modeling of the first natriuretic peptide isolated from scorpion venom. In addition, the renal actions and the effects on NPRs mRNA expression in the kidneys are delineated. Our data showed that TsNP might act promiscuously with NPR-B, NPR-C and GC-C. Future binding analyses should elucidate the relative affinities between TsNP and various receptors.

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