, 2010), different sequences of the groESL operon were found in t

, 2010), different sequences of the groESL operon were found in two genetic lineages. A much lower diversity of sequences of groESL operon has been detected in samples from dogs and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Slovenia. In dogs, two genetic variants and in wild boar one genetic variant, genetic variant of A. phagocytophilum have been established (Strašek Smrdel et al., 2008a, b). These sequences clustered in one genetic

lineage, together with red deer sequences. Despite the fact that great diversity of groESL operon sequences in ticks and deer in Slovenia has been detected (Petrovec et al., 2002; Strašek Smrdel et al., 2010), only one genetic variant was present among all tested (27) human patients from this study, as well as in wild boar samples from previous study (Strašek Smrdel et al., 2008b). An identical

variant of CX-4945 the groESL operon has previously been found also in ticks I. ricinus (Petrovec et al., 1999; Strašek Smrdel et al., 2010), dog samples (Strašek Smrdel et al., 2008a), and a human patient (Petrovec et al., 1999) in Slovenia, but not in roe deer and red deer samples (Petrovec et al., 2002). Results from this and previous studies of wild boar, deer, tick, human, and dog samples from Slovenia might suggest that wild boar could represent a reservoir for a variant of the groESL operon of A. phagocytophilum that causes human Galunisertib mouse anaplasmosis in human patients and dogs from Slovenia. On the other hand, only this variant might be competent enough to replicate in wild boar, dogs, and humans, but not in deer. In contrast to our results, in the neighboring country Austria, two genotypes of groEL gene in two human

patients have been found recently. They differ in a single A/G polymorphism (Haschke-Becher et al., 2010). After all, although Slovenia has the largest number of PCR detected and sequenced human samples of A. phagocytophilum so far, it might also be a country too small to detect greater genetic diversity among human samples of anaplasmosis. This is the first report of the PCR-confirmed human cases of anaplasmosis in Slovenia. No variability in the groESL operon among human patients in IKBKE Slovenia has been found. The same genotype of the groESL operon was found in human and wild boar samples. Is it possible that wild boar might serve as a reservoir for this variant of A. phagocytophilum in Slovenia? Or is this variant competent enough to replicate only in boar and humans? Other genetic markers need to be analyzed from multiple strains to draw a final conclusion. “
“Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA In species other than mouse, little is known about the origin and development of marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Using cross-reactive antibodies, we identified and characterized splenic MZ B cells in rabbits as CD27+CD23−.

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