, 2004; Cheung et al, 2004) The production of these virulence p

, 2004; Cheung et al., 2004). The production of these virulence proteins is regulated by a number of transcription factors including

the key pleiotropic regulator SarA encoded by the sar (staphylococcus selleck products accessory regulator) locus (Cheung et al., 2008a, b) and the different regulators encoded by the agr (accessory gene regulator) locus (Bronner et al., 2004), namely the regulating RNA molecule, RNA III (Novick & Geisinger, 2008). The sarA locus is controlled by three unique promoters that produce three overlapping transcripts that terminate at a similar end (Bayer et al., 1996). SarA binds to several promoters, including virulence regulatory systems such as agr, sarS and sarV, and virulence genes such as hla, spa, can, bap, ica and fnbA to modulate gene transcription (Liu et al., 2006). Microarray

analyses demonstrated that a SarA mutation altered the expression of over 120 genes (Dunman et al., 2001). Staphylococcus aureus exhibits high efficiency in overcoming antibiotic effectiveness. Hence, methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus are now considered Vemurafenib manufacturer a major public health concern. SarA and its counterpart MgrA were newly described to be involved in vancomycin, oxacillin and ciprofloxacin resistance, in particular, in MRSA strains (Lamichhane-Khadka et al., 2009; Trotonda et al., 2009). Recently, MgrA, a global regulator belonging to the SarA family, and

involved in the expression of virulence genes, was shown to be phosphorylated by the eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase Stk1, also termed PknB. Such a post-translational modification of MgrA strongly affected its ability to bind the norA promoter. Overexpression of PknB led then to an increased expression of the NorA efflux pump, resulting in an increased resistance to quinolones (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) in RN6390 and SH1000 (Truong-Bolduc et al., 2008). Stk1 and its cognate phosphatase Stp1 were also demonstrated to play a crucial role Ergoloid in cell-wall metabolism and appear to be important in the resistance to a huge range of antibiotics, such as tunicamycin and fosfomycin (Beltramini et al., 2009; Debarbouille et al., 2009; Donat et al., 2009). Interestingly, Debarbouille et al. (2009) show that Stk1 was required for the full expression of S. aureus pathogenesis. Indeed, a lack of Stk1 resulted in a significantly decreased virulence in a murine pyelonephritis model. The role of phosphorylation via eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens was described previously (Cozzone, 2005). However, a direct link between Ser/Thr kinases phosphorylation and the virulence of S. aureus has been clearly established.

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