125 mu g/kg/h). VNS was performed bilaterally through vagosympathetic trunks to achieve second-degree AV block or sinus rate slowing of >30 beats per minute. Atrial effective Selleck DMXAA refractory periods (AERPs) were determined in the coronary sinus and right atrial appendage every hour at drive cycle lengths (DCLs) 350 ms, 300 ms, and 250 ms.
Results: During 5 hours RAP with or without VNS, AERP shortened progressively from baseline at both pacing sites and at all DCLs (P < 0.01). Furthermore, RAP-induced AERP shortening was more pronounced with VNS (P < 0.01). With atropine,
the AERP shortening during VNS was blunted (P < 0.01), but was still significantly more pronounced than that in group I (P < 0.05). However, VNS effect on AERP shortening was eliminated completely with the combination of atropine and VIP antagonist (P = 0.15 vs group I).
Conclusion: Increased vagal activity promotes RAP-induced AER, which could not be totally accounted for by cholinergic effect but could be blocked by the combination of atropine and VIP antagonist. Vagally released VIP may have important role in the vagal promotion of AER. (PACE 2011; 34:1092-1099)”
“Conjugative plasmids are involved in the dissemination of important traits such as antibiotic resistance, virulence
determinants and metabolic pathways involved in adapting to environmental niches, a process termed horizontal or lateral gene transfer. Conjugation is the process of transferring DNA from a donor to a recipient cell with the establishment Mocetinostat cost of the incoming DNA and its cargo of genetic traits within the transconjugant. Conjugation is mediated by self-transmissible plasmids as well as phage-like sequences that have been integrated into the bacterial chromosome, such as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) that now include conjugative transposons. Both conjugative plasmids and ICEs can mediate the transfer of mobilizable elements by sharing Acadesine their conjugative machinery. Conjugation can either be induced, usually by small molecules
or peptides or by excision of the ICE from the host chromosome, or it can be tightly regulated by plasmid- and host-encoded factors. The transfer potential of these transfer regions depends on the integration of many signals in response to environmental and physiological cues. This review will focus on the mechanisms that influence transfer potential in these systems, particularly those of the IncF incompatibility group.”
“In this paper we present a model for calculating the propagation of magnetic flux in thin ferromagnetic samples, which is based on variational methods applied to magnetostatics. Starting from basic magnetostatic equations this model yields an exponential decay of the flux along the sample, with a decay length depending only on the sample geometry and relative permeability.