e would explain the overall lower concentration of anthocyanins

e. would explain the overall lower concentration of anthocyanins per head. Consistently, it has been established Sorafenib molecular weight that inner leaves of lettuce heads have lower concentrations of flavonols than outer leaves- not due to a lack of competence but due to lower incident radiation intensity compared to the situation with outer leaves (Hohl, Neubert, Pforte, Schonhof, & Böhm, 2001). The observation that there was no significant difference anymore between mature heads of warm- and cool-cultivated plants (Fig. 3 and Table 1) may indicate an acclimation of the all the time cool-cultivated plants to the lower temperature.

In these plants the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna may have been down-scaled and the chlorophyll a/b ratio altered (Havaux & Kloppstech, 2001). Thereby, again, the amount of energy captured and funnelled into the electron transport chain would be reduced and no anthocyanin accumulation would be necessary to encounter an enhanced oxidative load. Regarding quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide/luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside concentration, there were no significant

differences between small heads that were cultivated either cool or warm ( Fig. 3 and Table 1). Furthermore, there were no significant differences concerning these compounds between mature heads cultivated in different temperature regimes ( Fig. 3 and Adenosine triphosphate Table 1). If we compare warm- and cool-cultivated Selleckchem TSA HDAC plants after the same number of days, we detect significantly higher

concentrations of quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide/luteolin-7-O-glucuronide ( Table 2 and Fig. 3). However, the data of Romani et al. (2002) suggest a higher concentration of quercetin glycosides in early growth stage-lettuce compared to later stages. In Section 3.2 we demonstrated that warm- and cool-cultivated plants in our experiment were in different growth stages after 26 days of treatment. Hence, we conclude that the higher concentrations in the cool-cultivated plants were rather due to their growth stages than to the temperature treatment. This is in line with results Løvdal et al. (2010) obtained on leaves of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum): Quercetin glycosides were accumulated in response to increasing light intensity and nitrogen depletion rather than to lowered temperature alone. Indeed, quercetin glycoside concentration in red leaf lettuce does respond sensitively to radiation intensity ( Becker et al., 2013). In our experiment, we closely monitored the macro nutrients in the nutrient solution to ensure they are sufficient and the PPFD we applied was constant (247 μmol m−2 s−1). The lowest temperature in our experiment (7 °C) was applied outside of the photoperiod and it, therefore, did not concur with radiation.

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