The pGP U6-shRNA plasmids were constructed by cloning the respective shRNAs into the pGPU6/GFP/ Neo vector (GenePharma, Shanghai, China). An SBE-��-CD solubility dmso unrelated shRNA sequence (5′-CACCGTTCTCCGAACGTGT CACGTCAAGAGATTACGTGACACGTTCGGAGAATTTTTTG-3′), with no homology to any human gene, was used as a negative control (shNC). GBC-SD cells
were seeded in a 24-well plate at a concentration of 1 × 105 cells per well. Lipofectamine Selleck WH-4-023 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used for transfection according to the instructions. Fresh growth medium was changed 6 h after transfection and 48 h after transfection the cells were harvested for analysis. The shNC was used as a negative control. To verify the knockdown efficiency, mRNA and protein of transfected Autophagy Compound Library cost cells were collected for qRT-PCR and western blot analysis as described above. Verification of Nrf2 knockdown was determined by normalizing the levels of Nrf2 to the control. Statistical analysis Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error from at least 3 separate experiments performed in triplicate. Differences between groups were assessed by unpaired, two-tailed Student’s t test, P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Effect of propofol on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion We first investigated the effects of propofol on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. The GBC-SD cell lines were
cultured in the presence of various concentrations of propofol and the cell proliferation were measured by the MTT assays. As shown in Figure
1A, the proliferation of GBC-SD were promoted by propofol in dose- and time- dependent manners. Propofol with the concentration 20 μmol/L and 40 μmol/L significantly promoted the proliferation at 48 h and 72 h. To further quantify the cell death, annexin V/PI analysis was performed. After exposed to propofol for 48 h, GBC-SD cells showed decreasing apoptosis (Figure 1B and Figure 1C). Cell invasion assay also revealed that Meloxicam propofol significantly stimulated invasion when giving a concentration of 20 μmol/L and 40 μmol/L (Figure 1D and Figure 1E). So, we chose propofol with the concentration 20 μmol/L in the following experiments. Figure 1 Effects of propofol stimulation on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of propofol (0–40 μmol/L). (A) Propofol increased GBC-SD cells proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (B) and (C) Apoptosis analysis using flow cytometry showed that propofol inhibited the apoptosis. (D) and (E) Cell invasion assay revealed that propofol significantly stimulated invasion. All of these results confirmed that propofol (given a concentration greater than or equal 20 μmol/L) significantly promoted proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and stimulated invasion. * P < 0.