S1a) The ΔareA strain (KM1) was complemented by introducing a co

S1a). The ΔareA strain (KM1) was complemented by introducing a construct containing areA ORF fused with hyg cassette, which generated the ΔareA::areA strains (KM2). Targeted deletion of areA and complementation of the deletion strain were confirmed by Southern blot analysis (Fig. S1b). The growth rate of the ΔareA strains was slower than that of wild-type and complemented strains in CM, and the ΔareA strains could not grow in MM supplemented with nitrate as a sole nitrogen source (Fig. 1). When the deletion mutants were cultured in MM supplemented with urea, they were able to use urea partially as a nitrogen

source. Gibberella zeae wild-type strain could not grow normally in MM supplemented with ammonium or glutamine, and the edge of the mycelial colonies was found to be irregular and the growth retarded. Glutamine was utilized by the ΔareA strains, but the growth rate was slower than that of the wild-type strain. Complementation selleck chemicals llc strains

showed similar radial R428 mouse growth as the wild type in various nitrogen sources. The virulence of all strains was examined by point-inoculation of wheat spikelets. The areA deletion mutants only caused localized necrosis at the inoculation points but had a greatly reduced ability to cause symptoms compared with the wild-type strain (Fig. 2). Virulence of the mutants was not recovered with 5 mM urea treatment. Complementation strains showed similar virulence on wheat heads compared with the wild-type strain. Trichothecene (deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) Osimertinib price production was induced in defined media containing agmatine as a nitrogen source (Gardiner et al., 2009). The ΔareA strains grew poorly and were not able to produce trichothecenes in the cultures (Fig. 3a). The ability

to produce trichothecenes was restored in the complemented strains. When the medium was supplemented with 5 mM of urea, the biomass of ΔareA mycelia was increased. However, neither the ΔareA strains nor the wild-type strain produced trichothecenes in urea-supplemented cultures. Biomass of the ΔareA strains was similar to the wild-type strain in SG medium. In zearalenone production, there was no significant difference between the wild-type and ΔareA strains. The expression of transcription factors required for trichothecenes (TRI6) and zearalenone biosynthesis (ZEB2) was determined by qRT-PCR (Fig. 3b). The transcript level of TRI6 was reduced about 11 times in the ΔareA strains compared with the wild-type strain. Deletion of areA did not affect the expression of ZEB2 in SG media, in agreement with the zearalenone production. At 7 DAI of sexual development, wild-type and ΔareA strains produced a similar number of mature perithecia on the cultures. However, the wild-type strains developed ascospores in asci but the asci of the ΔareA mutants did not produce mature spores until 14 DAI (Fig. 4a).

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