Most cases showed cystic mass with mural nodule and periventricular location was common. Although radiological findings can provide some evidence for this newly established tumor entity, differential diagnosis is still needed. “
“In this article, we present two can’t-miss findings on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3.0-T MR system resulting in a better surgical option in prolactinoma treatment after emergent of dopamine agonists. We reviewed six cases of pituitary prolactinoma; each had vague or occult bulk of
adenoma on 1.5-T MR imaging, which were finally confirmed by surgery. Four cases were preoperatively examined with a 3.0-T MR imaging system. With the 3.0-T MR system, 3-dimension-anisotropy-contrast (3DAC) MR imaging and 3-dimension fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-FSPGR) imaging were used for depiction selleck kinase inhibitor of the adenoma. 3DAC imaging revealed cavernous sinus (CS) pathology in three cases, and multiplanar reconstruction of 3D-FSPGR imaging revealed normal pituitary gland and invasive adenoma into the CS in three cases and creeping extension up to the contralateral side of the CS invasion in four cases. Two can’t-miss findings: (1) intrasellar creeping extension up to the opposite side of the adenoma
main body and (2) intracavernous-localized adenoma with indistinct intrasellar mass should be carefully considered when neurosurgeons perform adenomectomy Midostaurin for patients with prolactinoma, even in cases of microprolactinoma. “
“Paradoxical embolism through
extracardiac right-to-left shunts (ECRLS) may represent an under-detected stroke mechanism. Stroke patients without evidence of cardiac right-to-left shunt (RLS) on echocardiogram may benefit from transcranial Doppler with bubble study (TCD-b) to aid in recognition of stroke etiology. This study assesses the usefulness of TCD-b in the stroke evaluation. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing TCD-b performed in our neurovascular laboratory from February 2005 to August 2009. Echocardiography results were reviewed in patients with positive TCD-b. Detailed medical record review was performed on patients with positive TCD-b and negative echocardiogram findings for RLS. Of 502 patients undergoing TCD-b, 48.4% selleck compound (n = 243) had a positive study suggesting the presence of RLS. Of these, 59.2% (n = 144) had an echocardiogram demonstrating a cardiac RLS, 26% (n = 63) had echocardiograms without evidence of cardiac RLS, and 14.8% (n = 36) had no echocardiogram. Data on the evaluation to determine source of potential shunting in patients with discrepant findings was available in 11(17.5%). Of these, 63.6% (7/11) had potential mechanisms for positive TCD-b: one pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM), one arteriovenous fistula thrombus, one parietal AVM, and four had malignancy. TCD-bubble studies may prove useful in uncovering treatable causes of stroke.