Light emitted from QWs has two optical polarization modes: transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. In the LED structures grown on a c-plane substrate, the polarization selleck chemicals direction of the TE (or TM) mode corresponds to the electric field direction perpendicular (or parallel) to the c-axis.
Therefore, the TE-polarized light propagates in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, the TM-polarized light propagates mainly in the horizontal direction. Then, LEE of the TE mode will be much higher than that of the TM mode because the TM-polarized light undergoes strong effects of total internal reflection (TIR) due to the large incident angle on the interface of an LED chip. Consequently, LEE will decrease significantly as the contribution of the TM mode increases. In most LEDs operating IACS-010759 in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range, TE
mode emission is dominant. In AlGaN QWs, however, light is emitted as either TE or TM mode, and the portion of the TM mode increases as the Al composition increases or emission wavelength decreases [6–8]. The increasing contribution of the TM mode with decreasing wavelengths can be attributed to another cause of low LEE in AlGaN deep UV LEDs. In order to achieve high-efficiency AlGaN-based deep UV LEDs, it is quite important to increase LEE substantially. For obtaining high LEE, several light-extracting technologies have been developed such as surface roughing , patterned substrates , and photonic crystal patterns
[11–13]. However, the patterning PS-341 nmr TCL structures have been found to be not so effective for obtaining high LEE in deep UV LEDs owing to the strong light absorption in the p-GaN layer . In this research, we pay attention to nanorod structures for obtaining high LEE. Due to the nanoscale geometry, TIR inside the nanorod can be considerably reduced and light can easily escape from the nanorod structure for both the TE and TM modes. In addition, the area of the p-GaN layer can be greatly reduced, which results in the decrease of light absorption inside an LED structure and contributes to the increase in LEE [14–16]. In this work, LEE of AlGaN-based nanorod deep UV LED structures is investigated using numerical simulations. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on Yee’s algorithm with a perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition is employed for the simulation . The FDTD methods have been successfully employed for LEE simulations of vertical or nanorod LED structures [15, 18, 19]. Using the FDTD simulations, we calculate LEE of nanorod deep UV LED structures for both TE and TM polarization modes and investigate the dependence of LEE on structural parameters to find optimized nanorod structures for high LEE.