Cells were washed three times with cold phosphate-buffered saline

Cells were washed three times with cold phosphate-buffered saline (1×) (pH 7·2) (Gibco) containing sodium azide (0·03%) and gelatin (0·02%) and incubated with FITC-conjugated secondary antibody for 20 min at 4°, washed three times and fixed with paraformaldehyde (2%). Ten thousand events were collected and analysed by flow cytometry (FACScalibur™ using cellquest™

software; Becton Dickinson, BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA). To evaluate endocytosis, 2 × 105 MoDCs or BDCs were incubated with 200 μl FITC-dextran (1 mg/ml) (Sigma) or DQ™ red bovine serum albumin (BSA) (1 mg/ml) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) for 1-hr at either 0° or 37°.7 Cells were washed three times with cold phosphate-buffered saline and centrifuged at 350 g for 5 min. The uptake of the labelled particles was visualized by confocal microscopy Liproxstatin-1 PLX-4720 ic50 and quantified by flow cytometry using 10 000 cells/event. Endocytosis is inhibited at 0°, so cells

incubated at this temperature served as controls for non-specific fluorescence. The endocytic activity of MoDCs was examined from days 0 to 7 and that of BDCs was examined on day 1. Pigs were vaccinated at 4 weeks of age with 10 μg genetically detoxified pertussis toxoid (PTd; Novartis, Sienna, Italy) in 30% emulsigen (MPV Laboratories, Omaha, NE), and boosted every 2 weeks for a total of three vaccinations. Blood was collected from these pigs to isolate MoDCs, Oxaprozin BDCs and T cells. Once generated, MoDCs and BDCs were respectively pulsed with PTd (1 μg/ml in a total of 1 ml) or OVA (100 μg/ml in a total of 1 ml) for 3-hr and washed three times. Then, 3 × 104 MoDCs or BDCs were co-cultured in 200 μl of culture medium with a total of 3 × 105 MACS-purified

CD4 and CD8 autologous T cells for 72-hr in 96-well U-bottom plates (Corning, NY). During the last 8-hr of culture 1 μCi [3H]thymidine (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Baie de Urfe, PQ) was added and proliferative responses were determined. Results are expressed as a stimulation index and analysed by a Mann–Whitney U-test. To evaluate differential messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, 1 × 106 MoDCs or BDCs were lysed in TRIzol (Invitrogen) and stored at − 80° until further processing. For RNA extraction, 200 μl chloroform was added per 1 ml TRIzol. The sample was incubated at room temperature for 3 min and centrifuged at 12 000 g for 10 min at 4°. The aqueous phase was collected and 500 μl isopropanol was added. The sample was incubated for 5 min at room temperature and then applied to a mini-column (Qiagen RNeasy®, Mississauga, ON) and centrifuged for 15 seconds at 8000 g. The sample was washed as per the manufacturer’s instructions and DNAse I treatment was performed. The optical density at 260 nm (OD260) was used to quantify RNA and the ratio of OD260 : OD280 was used to determine purity.

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