Biofilm formation is important to bacteria for colonization and s

Biofilm formation is important to bacteria for colonization and stress resistance in their natural environments and is highly influenced by multiple factors (Danhorn & Fuqua, 2007). Biofilm formation is known to be affected by Hfq expression in P. aeruginosa and E. coli (Wilson et al., 2007; Kulesus et al., 2008). Proteome and microarray analyses in Salmonella typhimurium and P. aeruginosa have shown that Hfq is a global regulator influencing various genes’ expression (Sittka et al., 2007; Wilson

et al., 2007). In P. aeruginosa, the hfq gene positively regulates genes encoding flagellar biosynthesis factors, which are necessary for the initial attachment to the surface for establishment of biofilm formation (Wilson et al., 2007). Mutation of the hfq gene in S. typhimurium Lumacaftor and E. coli significantly inhibited flagella-mediated

bacterial swarming motility on a solid surface (Sittka et al., 2007; Kulesus et al., 2008). Our swarming assay with strain 2P24 showed that the hfq gene mutation also resulted in impaired swarming ability (data not shown) and suggested that the hfq-mediated biofilm formation in P. fluorescens 2P24 may require the expression of genes associated with flagellar biosynthesis. Further experiments are needed to investigate the potential pathway through which the hfq gene regulates biofilm formation in P. fluorescens 2P24. This work was funded by the National Programs for High Technology Research and Development of China (2006A A10A211), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30871666, 30860166) and the Open Project of the State Key Laboratory Selleck Gefitinib of Biocontrol (SKLBC09K03). Fig.

S1. Regulation of phlA and pcoI genes transcription by the hfq gene. Gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR. The graph showing fold changes in gene transcription of phlA and pcoI in the wild-type strain 2P24 versus the hfq mutant PM107. Primers used for each gene are shown in Table S2. All experiments were performed in triplicate; means ± SD are plotted. Differences between treatments were analyzed with the two-sample independent t test. * P < 0.01. Table S1. Primers for DNA manipulations used in this study. HSP90 Table S2. Primers for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Bacterial exopolymeric substances (EPS) are molecules released in response to the physiological stress encountered in the natural environment. EPS are structural components of the extracellular matrix in which cells are embedded during biofilm development. The chemical nature and functions of these EPS are dependent on the genetic expression of the cells within each biofilm.

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