Two hypotheses to explain the findings are proposed The ‘central

Two hypotheses to explain the findings are proposed. The ‘central hypothesis’ posits that the degree of overlap of cortical tactile representations depends on stimulus intensity, with representations less separated for near-threshold stimuli than for suprathreshold

stimuli. The ‘peripheral hypothesis’ assumes that systematic mislocalizations are due to activation of different Vorinostat concentration sets of skin receptors with specific thresholds. The present experiments were designed to decide between the two hypotheses. Taking advantage of the frequency tuning of somatosensory receptors, their contribution to systematic misclocalizations was studied. In the first experiment, mislocalization profiles were investigated using vibratory stimuli with frequencies of 10, 20 and 100 Hz. Unambiguous mislocalization effects were only obtained for the 10-Hz stimulation, precluding the involvement of Pacinian corpuscles in systematic mislocalization. In the second experiment, Pacinian corpuscles were functionally eliminated by applying a constant 100-Hz vibratory

masking check details stimulus together with near-threshold pulses. Despite masking, systematic mislocation patterns were observed rendering the involvement of Pacinian corpuscles unlikely. The results of both experiments are in favor of the ‘central hypothesis’ assuming that the extent of overlap Teicoplanin in somatosensory representations is modulated by stimulus intensity. “
“The binding of stimulus (S) and response (R) features into S-R episodes or ‘event files’ is a basic process for the regulation

of behavior. Recent studies have shown that even irrelevant information is bound into event files. Associating distractors with responses leads to more efficient behavior if irrelevant and relevant stimuli are correlated, but leads to erroneous or inadequate behavior if irrelevant stimuli do not predict relevant ones. In this study, we investigated a control mechanism that is triggered by errors resulting from distractor-based response retrieval. We tested whether the error-related negativity (ERN) differs depending on the error source. In particular, we compared errors due to distractor-based response retrieval with random errors. Errors originating from distractor-based response retrieval elicited a stronger (more negative) ERN than did other types of errors, suggesting that the cognitive system responds in a unique way to this kind of error. This control mechanism is adaptive because it prevents the emergence of inadequate response routines. “
“Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a new therapeutic option for functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. In addition to ameliorating nausea and vomiting, GES results in improved appetite which is not always associated with accelerated gastric emptying.

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