In addition, the use of LAB was effective in decreasing the VBN c

In addition, the use of LAB was effective in decreasing the VBN content (Table 3). It has been reported that homofermentative

LAB inoculants can decrease wasteful fermentation end products including ammonium nitrate and volatile fatty acids, which cause higher DM losses (Pahlow & Honig, 1994). DM is a material remaining after removal of water and contains the main nutrients found in feeds for animal growth (McDonald et al., 1991). TO1002 was useful for keeping a significantly higher DM, Bleomycin cell line and the DM recovery also differed in a strain-dependent manner. Similarly, the numbers of viable microorganisms differed (Table 3). The LAB-inoculated samples maintained significantly higher numbers of LAB and had lower numbers of aerobic bacteria as well as undetectable levels of molds and yeasts. These results indicate that lower pH-resistant L. plantarum

subsp. plantarum can survive in silage with acidic conditions for 30 days and inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms such as molds and yeasts. The viability of coliform bacteria, bacilli, and clostridia in the TO1000- and TO1001-containing samples fell below detectable levels, whereas those in the TO1002 and TO1003 samples tended to be detectable but were significantly or moderately depressed. Considering the differences in organic acid contents and pH values find more among different strains of the same subspecies, the distinct growth-inhibitory activities of organic acids might influence the survival of microorganisms in fermentative processes. After 60 days of storage, all LAB-inoculated samples showed significantly lower pH values than the no-additive group, reflecting significantly higher lactic acid content (Table 4). The VBN content

in all LAB-treated Phosphoprotein phosphatase samples was slightly lower than the control sample (Table 4). Silage treated with TO1002 or TO1003 showed significantly higher DM recovery (Table 4). The numbers of LAB in LAB-treated samples were maintained after 60 days and were significantly higher than the control (Table 4). Using LAB inoculants, the survival of unfavorable microorganisms such as molds, aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, bacilli, and clostridia was significantly suppressed or had dropped to below detectable levels. Bacilli and clostridia, which can generate dormant and highly resistant spore-forming cells in response to severe external environments (Setlow, 2006; Driks, 2007), were detected in the TO1000-treated samples (Table 4). In the case of TO1001, yeasts were detected at the same level as the control (Table 4). Certain yeasts survive and keep their intracellular pH between 6.0 and 7.5 when the extracellular pH varies from 3.5 to 9 (Salhany et al., 1975; Borst-Pauwels & Peters, 1977; Eraso & Gancedo, 1987). Thus, the ability of LAB inoculants to improve the whole crop paddy rice silage differed depending on the strain. Some L.

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