However, major limitations in the techniques used for the acquisi

However, major limitations in the techniques used for the acquisition and analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have hitherto precluded segregation of function with the amygdala in humans. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI in combination with a region-of-interest-based normalization method to differentiate functionally the contributions of distinct subregions within the human amygdala during two different types of instrumental conditioning: reward and avoidance learning. Through the application of a computational-model-based analysis, we found evidence for a dissociation

between the contributions of the basolateral and centromedial complexes in the representation of specific computational signals during Nivolumab learning, with the basolateral complex contributing more to reward learning, and the centromedial complex more to avoidance learning. These results provide unique insights into the computations being implemented within fine-grained amygdala circuits in the human brain. “
“Cerebellar function is regulated by cholinergic mossy fiber inputs that are primarily derived from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi Antiinfection Compound Library purchase nucleus (PHN). In contrast to the growing

evidence surrounding cholinergic transmission and its functional significance in the cerebellum, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cholinergic projection neurons (ChPNs) have not been clarified. In this study, we generated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-tdTomato transgenic rats, which specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato in cholinergic neurons, and used them to investigate the response properties of ChPNs identified via buy Atezolizumab retrograde labeling using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices. In response to current pulses, ChPNs exhibited two afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) profiles and three firing patterns; the predominant AHP and firing properties differed between the MVN and PHN. Morphologically, the ChPNs were separated into two types based on their soma size and dendritic extensions. Analyses of the firing responses to time-varying sinusoidal

current stimuli revealed that ChPNs exhibited different firing modes depending on the input frequencies. The maximum frequencies in which each firing mode was observed were different between the neurons that exhibited distinct firing patterns. Analyses of the current responses to the application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists revealed that the ChPNs expressed (i) AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, (ii) GABAA and glycine receptors, and (iii) muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The current responses mediated by these receptors of MVN ChPNs were not different from those of PHN ChPNs. These findings suggest that ChPNs receive various synaptic inputs and encode those inputs appropriately across different frequencies.

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