For women with a plasma VL of 50–399 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 week

For women with a plasma VL of 50–399 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 weeks, PLCS should be considered, taking into account the actual VL, trajectory of the VL, length of time on treatment, adherence issues, obstetric factors and the woman’s views. Where the VL is ≥400 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 weeks, PLCS is recommended. Published cohort data from the UK

and other European countries have shown MTCT rates of <0.5% in women check details with plasma VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL taking HAART, irrespective of mode of delivery [[1],[4],[25],[26]]. These studies support the practice of recommending planned vaginal delivery for women on HAART with plasma VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL. Among HIV-positive women taking HAART in pregnancy and delivering between 2000 and 2006 in the UK and Ireland, there was no difference in MTCT rate whether they delivered by planned CS (0.7%; 17 of 2286) or planned vaginal delivery [0.7%; four of 559; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.24; 95% CI 0.34–4.52]. Median VL on HAART was <50 HIV RNA copies/mL (IQR 50–184). MTCT was 0.1% (three transmissions) in 2117 women

on HAART with a delivery VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL. Two of the three infants were born by elective (pre-labour) CS (0.2%, two of 1135) and one find more by planned vaginal delivery (0.2%, one of 417); two of the three had evidence of in utero transmission (being HIV DNA PCR positive at birth). In this study there were no MTCT data for specific VL thresholds or strata >50 HIV RNA copies/mL plasma, but in the multivariate analysis, controlling for ART, mode of delivery, gestational age and sex, there

was a 2.4-fold increased risk of transmission for every log10 increase in VL, with lack of ART and mode of delivery strongly associated with transmission [1]. Data from the ANRS French Perinatal cohort reported on 5271 women delivering between Amino acid 1997 and 2004 of whom 48% were on HAART. In women on HAART with a delivery VL of <400 copies/mL there was no significant difference in MTCT rates according to mode of delivery, with three of 747 (0.4%) transmission in the ECS group compared with three of 574 (0.5%) transmissions in the vaginal delivery group (P = 0.35). The effect of mode of delivery was also analysed for women delivering with a VL >10 000 HIV RNA copies/mL and no significant protective effect of elective CS was seen (OR 1.46; 0.37–5.80). MTCT was low at 0.4% in women delivering with a VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL but mode of delivery data for this subset were not provided [4]. In contrast, data from the ECS of 5238 women delivering between 1985 and December 2007 showed that in 960 women delivering with a VL <400 HIV RNA copies/mL, elective CS was associated with an 80% decreased risk of MTCT (AOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.05–0.65) adjusting for HAART and prematurity. There were only two transmissions among 599 women delivering with VLs <50 HIV RNA copies/mL (MTCT 0.

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