Tadpoles with a large starting size remained the largest ones through the entire larval development, and attained metamorphosis earlier. Food with a high-protein content reduced mortality and increased the growth and development rate; the choice of food may be important in captive-breeding/headstarting programmes. We did not detect effects of the interaction between provisioning and type of food on tadpole performance. Our study confirms the importance of egg provisioning in amphibians,
showing that it can affect multiple traits, and that their effects can last through the entire larval development. “
“To examine the mechanism of sperm storage in Idiosepius paradoxus, here we describe aspects of the mating behavior of I. paradoxus and the morphology of the spermatozoa and the seminal Wnt antagonist receptacle after copulation. The seminal receptacle Selleck Rucaparib is located in the ventral portion of the buccal membrane surrounding the buccal mass, and opens inside the buccal membrane. It branches into approximately six sacs, similar in appearance to a bunch of bananas, and its wall consists of cuboidal ciliated epithelial cells (with oval nuclei) surrounded by a connective tissue. Multiple vacuoles are distributed in the bottom region of each sac. These
histological and morphological characteristics differ from previous reports for loliginid squids and cuttlefish. In all except one receptacle observed in this study, sperm were stored near the bottom of each sac, and each sperm was facing the sac bottom. We observed spermatozoa in the entrance of the seminal receptacle in only one squid. from These results suggest that spermatozoa were actively moving,
and that sperm actively swam to the seminal receptacle. The volume of sperm in the seminal receptacles of the squid that had copulated eight times was the same as that in the squid that had copulated 29 times, which suggests that the seminal receptacle was filled after approximately eight copulation events. A squid that had copulated nine times retained a significant number of sperm in the seminal receptacle after spawning, suggesting that all of the sperm in the receptacle was not depleted after one spawning event. “
“Reliable data on jaguar population densities are needed to propose appropriate conservation and management strategies, and camera trapping may be effective for estimating the population density of secretive large cats. I determined the population density of jaguars in the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve along the coast of Jalisco, Mexico, through camera trapping and capture–recapture analysis during the dry season of March to June 2008. I applied the half mean maximum distance moved (1/2MMDM) to calculate the radius of the effectively sampled area, and compared this with estimates of the effectively sampled area based on existing data on mean home range of jaguars at the study site.