Another strength is our use of LC-MS/MS for the T assays. LC-MS/MS is considered Mitomycin C nmr the ‘gold standard’
against which all assays are compared. Previous studies of T in HIV-infected patients have used radioimmunoassay; however, LC-MS/MS ensures the accuracy and credibility of T measurements in this population. Most of the HIV-infected participants were on HAART, however, so results are not generalizable to antiretroviral-naïve individuals. Furthermore, it is difficult to determine the effect of antiretroviral therapy compared with the direct effects of HIV. Our ability to determine temporality is limited by the cross-sectional design of the study. Additionally, the timing of the collection of blood samples was not standardized, and therefore we cannot accurately assess
the true gonadal state of each participant. In a supplementary analysis, we examined the preclinical CVD outcomes for samples drawn in the morning only and in the evening only separately, and found no association between T and CAC or IMT/carotid lesions when data were stratified by time of blood collection, similar to when all samples were analysed together. Finally, the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients had differences in their traditional CVD risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and smoking status), which we adjusted for in multivariate analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the association Talazoparib manufacturer between FT and CAC presence, carotid IMT, and carotid lesion presence in men with and at risk for HIV infection. We found that, despite lower FT levels and a higher prevalence of carotid SPTLC1 lesions, FT was not associated with any of the measures of subclinical CVD. However, CVD is of increasing concern in an aging population with HIV infection. Additional research should be conducted to determine if all HIV-infected men should be screened for
hypogonadism and whether treatment decreases CVD risk. This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [MACS is supported by UO1-AI-35042, UL1-RR025005, UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-35041, R03-DA-026038 and M01 RR00425 (GCRC)]. Additional support was provided by the National Institutes of Health (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) (5K23AT2862 to T.T.B). The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) includes the following. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Joseph B. Margolick (Principal Investigator), Michael Plankey (Co-Principal Investigator), Barbara Crain, Adrian Dobs, Homayoon Farzadegan, Joel Gallant, Lisette Johnson-Hill, Ned Sacktor, Ola Selnes, James Shepard and Chloe Thio.