of effective antiretroviral therapies from 1997 onwards altered selleck the distribution of the incubation period in ways that are difficult to quantify. The interpretation of trends in both AIDS case reporting and HIV infection reporting must take into account the effect of treatment in slowing disease progression and the effect of test-seeking behaviour on the numbers and characteristics of persons being tested for HIV. When monotherapy was the main treatment option, models of the epidemic were adjusted for estimates of its effect on the incubation period from infection to AIDS, but the complexities and stronger effects of the multiple therapies now available have made treatment adjustment too uncertain for use in the modelling. Selumetinib price Methods of estimating HIV incidence rates based on the results of the HIV test and a test for a biomarker have been under investigation [2–4]. Although
these methods provide a very up-to-date and revealing snapshot of the epidemic, the technology used to detect recent infections is still quite new and expensive. The methodology that we used in this study does not require a test for a biomarker and makes maximal use of all available HIV/AIDS data sources in Australia’s surveillance databases, including ‘newly diagnosed HIV infections’, ‘newly acquired HIV infections’ and ‘AIDS diagnoses’, to estimate trends in HIV Interleukin-2 receptor incidence. As there is no established statistical model to link HIV incidence to HIV diagnosis
with respect to HIV testing patterns, the current methodology assumed that, if an individual was infected before, or during, a certain year, it was more likely that this individual sought an HIV diagnostic test at the onset of clinical symptoms. However, as HIV testing became more widely available and promoted, individuals infected in later years tended to be more likely to seek testing independent of the onset of clinical symptoms. Surveillance systems based on the reporting of AIDS cases also do not provide a completely up-to-date picture of the trend of the HIV epidemic, highlighting the need for methods with which to estimate the incidence of HIV infection accurately. In recent years in Australia, there have been increasing numbers of HIV diagnoses in some states and territories, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) . In this study, we used modified back-projection modelling to estimate the incidence of HIV infection in an attempt to assess whether increases in HIV notifications in recent years truly reflect increases in the underlying incidence of HIV infection.