The alterations observed were different in DCM and IHD patients (Fig. 3). In DCM patients LVAD support caused
a significant increase in the mRNA expression of integrin-α1, and -α10. However, in IHD patients a significant decrease in the expression of integrin-α5 and an increase in the expression of integrin-β6 was observed. This is interesting as integrin-α5 is the only known ligand of integrin-β6, but the mRNA expression of Roxadustat research buy both follow a different pattern. The only similarity between the two patient groups was the increase in the expression of integrin-α6 mRNA. Similar changes in integrin expression have been described by others, such as Hall et al.  and Schipper et al.  using gene profiling. Despite the differences observed in the mRNA expression, we did not detect large differences in quantities of integrin protein expression by IHC . Whether this is due to a high turnover of Selleckchem Gemcitabine the integrin proteins, post-transcriptional regulation, or a consequence of integrin shedding  needs further study. Another explanation may the difficult accessibility of integrins for the antibodies used,
which prevents detection of subtle changes during LVAD support in amount and expression of integrins. We did however detect differences by the IHC analyses in the location of the integrins studied (Table 3). Integrin-β6 mRNA was strongly up-regulated after unloading in IHD patients (Fig. 1). This integrin is known to be up-regulated during tissue remodeling and wound healing , and similar processes may be involved in reverse remodeling. It is likewise Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase remarkable that the only integrin
mRNA expression that was increased after LVAD support in both patients groups (integrin-α6) was located especially in the wall of capillaries in the myocardium and not in the cardiomyocytes. It has been described that integrin-α6 is important for regeneration and repair processes ,  and  and so it might stimulate the regeneration processes indirectly by inducing the development of more capillaries (resulting in a better blood supply) during the remodeling of the myocardium. This thesis is supported by the fact that the presence of integrin-α6 attracts mesenchymal stem cells  that might help to accomplish repair processes in the affected myocardium. Previously, we described that the collagen IV content of the basal membrane did alter strongly immunohistochemically. That change was not paralleled by changes in laminin content . In this paper we showed that perlecan (another important component of the basal membrane) did not show any significant change in protein expression during LVAD support and was pre- and post-LVAD similar to control expression. So, the previously shown changes during LVAD support in the basal membrane seem to be confined to the collagen IV content, and although perlecan is affected by mechanical stretching , LVAD unloading seems not to alter its expression.