27 Neither of the anatomic

MRI studies that reported puta

27 Neither of the anatomic

MRI studies that reported putamen volumes detected significant diagnostic group differences.22,32 However, studies of secondary ADHD suggest that the putamen lesions can contribute to ADHD symptomatology. In a study of 76 children with severe closed head injury, those who developed secondary ADHD were significantly more likely to demonstrate lesions in the right putamen.33 likewise, children Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with focal strokes and ADHD symptoms were significantly more likely to have involvement of right ventral putamen.34 The caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens receive efferents from the entire cerebral cortex. This impressive convergence of information is then processed and emerges from the output, nuclei of the basal ganglia, which, in primates, are the internal segment, of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. However, the volume of the PF-02341066 cost latter

cannot be reliably measured with current MRI Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parameters, and the size of the globus pallidus can only be measured as a unit (internal and external segments together), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and then only with difficulty. Still, this region was found to be significantly reduced in size in boys with ADHD,22,32 although these two studies differed in side of the larger difference (left or right). Globus pallidus volume differences in girls with ADHD did not survive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical covariance for total cerebral volume and IQ.31 A report of two cases of severe iatrogenic ADHD presumed to have been caused

by traumatic amniocentesis at 17 weeks’ gestation found complete ablation of right caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus in both.35 Cerebellum An early Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical computed tomography study found a trend toward greater cerebellar atrophy in adults with a prior history of hyperkinetic minimal brain dysfunction.36 In a quantitative MRI study of 112 subjects, the volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres were found to be significantly smaller in ADHD boys.22 In a follow-up study within the same sample, the cerebellar vermis as a whole, and particularly the posterior-inferior lobules (lobules VIII to X) were found to be significantly smaller in ADHD.37 Smaller lobules VIII-X were independently replicated in boys with ADHD,38 and in girls with ADHD31 Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease where the posteriorinferior cerebellar vermis was the only structure that was rigorously replicated, with a comparable standardized effect size (d=0.66 in boys, d=0.63 in girls). Recently completed automated analyses of brain anatomy in 152 children and adolescents with ADHD and 139 age- and sexmatched controls revealed highly significant global decreases in overall cerebral volume in patients, which were statistically comparable in all four lobes, and which were statistically more prominent only in cerebellum.

Although there is no definite explanation for the lack of associa

Although there is no definite explanation for the lack of association of our intervention with better performance, several explanations may be considered. First, this may be due to the relatively small sample size and lack of power. Although the intervention demonstrated a 10% relative increase in performance, this difference did not reach statistical significance; this was true overall and in different subgroups (Figure 3). Second, the intervention was very short, including only two questions the

participants were expected to ask themselves. It is possible that the intensity of this intervention was not high enough to affect performance. This explanation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is supported by the IDO inhibitor finding that stress levels, although decreasing overall during the resuscitation,

did not significantly decrease during the most vulnerable and most stressful period, that is, when CPR was started; this was true in the intention-to-treat and the per protocol analysis. Thus, the intervention may not have been intense enough to influence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stress levels to such a degree that stress-induced impairments of performance were successfully countered. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Still, it has to be noted that the effect of the intervention on hands-on time was close to statistical significance (P = .059) in quartile of students that was most highly stressed. Furthermore, if the difference of 5.5 seconds in hands-on time between experimental and control group (and of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 13.1 seconds in the most highly stressed quartile) can be confirmed in future

studies, this would indicate a notable improvement in performance considering the low intensity of the intervention. Interestingly, within this study we found that more leadership statements (such as commands, decisions what and how to do, task distribution among others) were associated with earlier start and longer duration of uninterrupted CPR performance. This validates previous observational research [8] and a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated a benefit from a brief leadership debriefing in terms of CPR performance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical PAK6 [5,35]. Within the present trial, the task-focusing strategy did not increase the number of leadership statements, which may partly explain the lack of improvement in CPR performance. Perhaps a combination of stress-related and leadership-related instructions would yield stronger results. This study has a number of limitations. The small number of participants included in this study limited the power of our analyses and increased the risk for type II errors. Although previous studies showed that participants rated the simulated resuscitation in a high fidelity simulator as highly realistic [36,37] and also perceived substantial stress [39], participants might still have perceived the simulated resuscitation as less stressful than a real life resuscitation.

The relative standard deviations (RSDs, in %) of the retention ti

The relative standard deviations (RSDs, in %) of the retention times were always less than 2% (n = 30) for the AQC-amino acids (Table 2 and Table S2). RSD values for peak areas ranged from 0.19 to 7.47% (Table 2). These results

compare well with the precision studies obtained for the HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of AQC derivatized amino acids performed by Hou et al. [50]. With their method, the RSD% of the peak area ratios was in the range of 1.1 to 4.0% using a mixed standard of 17 AQC-amino acids at the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical concentration of 100 μM (n = 6). Repeatability of retention time was not given in their study. Table 2 Representative retention time (Rt) and peak area relative standard deviation (RSD) values obtained from the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of AQC-derivatized amino acids. Average Rt and respective RSD values calculated in standard solutions (n = 30). Average … It is important to point out that the excellent stability of the retention time was observed in our study with injection of calibration standards and Arabidopsis extracts without Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical any particular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical column care, indicating the advantage of our technique over the ion pairing approach in terms of repeatability of the method. Table S2 shows the repeatability of

the retention time at two different time points within the chromatographic column lifetime. Retention time shifts were lower than 0.06 min. In the iron pairing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approach, retention time migration of underivatized amino acids after a few consecutive Purmorphamine datasheet assays is especially problematic due to accumulation of the ion-pairing reagent on the surface of the column material [19,20]. Retention time shift for native amino acids of as much as 1 or 1.5 min has been reported in the literature for IPRPLC-MS based studies [19,20]. Therefore, although intra-day RSD values for HPLC retention times found by IPRPLC-MS/MS methods could prove Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical comparable to the values reported in this study (for example, > 3.8% [17], > 1.3% [10]), caution must be exercised when doing a direct comparison

since, in some cases, retention time stability, and therefore, reproducible amino acid separation in IPRPLC-MS/MS medroxyprogesterone approaches is contingent to frequent column flush with pure organic solvent after few assays. The evaluation of the method was continued with data collection from the analysis of twenty solutions containing 38 derivatized physiological amino acids with a concentration ranging from 25 μM to 48 fM and 15 stable-isotope-labeled amino acids at a fixed concentration of 4 × 10−4 g/L. The data was used to create an internal calibration curve for each amino acid using the respective internal standard as given in Table S3. Using the internal standardization method, plots of relative peak area versus amino acid concentration were generated using the TargetLynx software and were used to calculate the linearity (correlation coefficient and dynamic range) and detection limits shown in Table 3.

The first, behaviourists relied heavily on basic research works,

The first, behaviourists relied heavily on basic research works, but. the gap between practice

and basic sciences has grown larger. Marks131 recently pointed out that, as far as clinical effectiveness and efficiency are concerned, CBT is coming of age, but it, is a toddler in terms of the scientific explanations of its effects. Historically, CBT was the first, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evidence-based treatment, for anxiety disorders, long before evidence-based medicine was a bandwagon,132 but now needs to be more empirically grounded. Filling this gap will be the endeavor of the 21st century researchers dedicated to the psychological approaches to anxiety disorders. Selected abbreviations and acronyms BDZ benzodiazepine BT behavior therapy CBT cognitive behavior therapy CT congnitive therapy EMDR eye movement desensitization and reprocessing GAD generalized anxiety disorder OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder RCT randomized controlled trial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SST social skills training ST supportive therapy
Anxiety disorders are the most common and among the most disabling of mental disorders in adults and adolescents.1

Although many are highly circumscribed fears of mild-to-modcratc severity, it has been estimated by the Epidemiological Catchment Area (RCA) study2 that approximately one quarter of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical people will experience severe symptoms, disability, and handicap as a consequence of anxiety Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders at some time during their lifetime. These disorders are associated with significant morbidity3 and increased mortality, probably as a consequence of increased suicide rates among sufferers. The direct and indirect costs to the health service and economy are considerable. Although persons who suffer from anxiety disorders are high consumers of all types of health services, only a minority receive Epigenetic inhibitor library specific help.4 The spectrum of anxiety disorders includes generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) and agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),

phobic disorder Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (including social phobia), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With the discovery Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase of new psychotropic medications, specific diagnosis within this spectrum is essential because each of these disorders responds to specific pharmacotherapy. The approach to anxiety should also recognize that anxiety and depression are often comorbid conditions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which were designed to treat depression, are also effective for many anxiety disorders. They have revolutionized the treatment of anxiety, replacing chronic use of benzodiazepines (BZs). SSRIs are effective for OCD, PDs, phobias, PTSD, and GAD (see Table I). Other antidepressants, including tianeptine, have proven effective in adjustment disorders in which both anxiety and depression are involved.

For patients who did not return the questionnaire after these att

For patients who did not return the questionnaire after these attempts, a blinded assessor conducted the questionnaire via telephone. Included in this questionnaire were questions that would identify a significant intracranial complication [7]. In cases where patients could not be reached by mail or telephone, medical

records and national mortality databases were consulted for evidence of complications and/or death. Considering the rigid and transparent organisation of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical health care system in Sweden, these methods would identify all patients with significant (enough to result in new neuroimaging, neurosurgery or death) intracranial complications. Our outcome endpoint for the study was significant intracranial complication, which was defined as either a traumatic complication on emergency

CT or, via follow-up, new Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuroimaging showing traumatic intracranial complication or neurosurgery and/or death due to an intracranial complication. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated from cross tabulation between S100B and significant intracranial complications and reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Values are reported to two significant figures. Results Between November 2007 and May 2011, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical we enrolled 512 patients (see Figure ​Figure22 for inclusion process and Table ​Table11 for descriptive statistics). 26 patients had cranial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CT pathology but only 24 (4.7%) showed traumatic abnormalities (isolated skull I-BET-762 molecular weight fracture n=3, cerebral contusions n=7, acute subdural hematoma n=3, intracranial air n=1, combinations of traumatic

intracranial findings n=10). 2 patients showed CT pathology not related to trauma (cerebral tumour n=1 and pathological intracranial calcification n=1). No patients needed neurosurgical intervention. One patient died as a result Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of a head injury; an 83-year-old man with an S100B level of 0.23μg/L and a CT showing expansive cerebral contusions who died from increased intracranial pressure. Neurosurgical care was denied due to advanced age. Figure 2 Inclusion process. MHI = Mild Head Injury. Table 1 Descriptive tuclazepam statistics 138 patients (27%) had a S100B level less than 0.10μg/L and 374 patients (73%) showed a S100B level higher or equal to 0.10μg/L. Details of how patients were managed are presented in Figure ​Figure3.3. The follow up questionnaire was completed for 414 patients (81%). Medical records and the mortality database were successfully checked for all remaining patients. No patients with a normal S100B level showed significant intracranial complication, either on CT or on follow-up, see Figure ​Figure33. Figure 3 Patient management in the study cohort including number of intracranial injuries. CT= computed tomography, MHI= mild head injury, SICC=Significant Intracranial Complication.

e , half of the correct responses were “same” and the other half

e., half of the correct responses were “same” and the other half were “different”). When the correct answer was “different”, the color combinations had changed by one color (92% of changes) or two colors (8% of changes). Irrelevant colors blue and green were also equally and randomly distributed in both tasks. All participants successfully completed the CMT-balloon task prior to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical taking part in the fMRI study with the CMT-clown task. Figure 1 Example of sequence presentation and stimuli for color matching

task (CMT)-clown. In a 1-back design, participants indicated in sequence whether or not the present clown had the same or different relevant colors as the previous clown. During training … A total of 24 task blocks (168 task trials) and 24 control blocks were presented. The task blocks were in four successive runs of six 32 sec blocks, each containing

eight stimuli. Each block contained only one difficulty level; all difficulty levels were presented in pseudo-random order within each of the four runs. Total Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical task time per difficulty level was 4 × 32 sec = 128 sec. The top of Figure 1 shows a sequence of task blocks alternating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with control blocks. Participants had 3 sec to view a figure and respond, followed by 1 sec interstimulus interval during which a central plus sign (+) was presented. Control blocks were 16 sec long each (Fig. 1). “Control 1” was a fixation cross; “control 2” was four different clown figures colored blue and green

(3 sec each) interleaved by a plus sign (1 sec); and “control 3” was four clown figures as control 2, with a dot appearing at different locations within the clown figure every second to encourage attentional and/or eye movements. Control Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2 and 3 were interleaved with plus signs to resemble the main task in visual–spatial features. Control blocks were presented after every task block in a pseudo-random order. Total block time per control type was 128 sec (2 × 4 × 16 = 128 sec), that is, equal to total task time per difficulty. Every run Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical began and ended with a 10 sec presentation of the fixation cross. Accuracy and Enzalutamide cost response times were recorded; others items were correct when responded to correctly within 3 sec. Working memory capacity score corresponded to the highest difficulty level reached with 70% accuracy (i.e., 20 of 28) or better, given similarly reliable performance on lower levels (Arsalidou et al. 2010 for details). A proportion correct score was calculated for the CMT that included only task blocks successfully completed with 70% or more correct (i.e., five or more items of seven for each block). Figural intersections task Figural intersections task (FIT) is a task with graded levels of difficulty, established to measure working memory capacity (mental/voluntary attention – Pascual-Leone and Baillargeon 1994), used here as additional behavioral task.

Using miR-125b and let-7 as representative miRNAs, Wu et al45 sho

Using miR-125b and let-7 as representative miRNAs, Wu et al45 showed that in mammalian cells the reduction in mRNA abundance is a consequence of accelerated deadenylation, which leads to rapid mRNA decay. Besides regulating translational processes, it has been shown that miRNA can also regulate gene transcription by targeting transcription factors. In this case, levels of transcription factors are downregulated by miRNAs, which in turn cause less expression of mRNA, leading to reduced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical protein synthesis.46,47 Recent evidence suggests that miRNA biogenesis can be regulated at the epigenetic level.48 For example, inhibitors of

DNA methylation and histone deacetylases can affect expression of several miRNAs.49 On the other hand, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a subset of miRNAs can control the expression of epigenetic regulators, such as DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, and polycomb group genes, leading to transcriptional activation of numerous protein Decitabine cell line coding gene sequences, thereby contributing to gene expression. This network of feedback

between miRNAs and epigenetic pathways appears to form an epigenetics-miRNA regulatory circuit, and to organize the whole gene expression profile.50 The expression of miRNAs is tissue-specific51-53 and, in some cases, even cell-type-specific.54-56 In addition, some of the miRNAs are expressed specifically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at the developmental stages.57,58 Approximately 20% to 40% of miRNAs in the brain are developmentally regulated.59,60 For example, miR-124a, which is conserved at the nucleotide level and is important for neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)—mediated functions, is expressed throughout embryonic and adult brain.61,62 There are studies which suggest that miRNAs, such as miR-124 and miR-128, are primarily expressed in neurons, whereas miR-23, miR-26, and miR-29 are expressed in high amounts in astrocytes.63 A recent study by He et al64 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suggests that

a large number of miRNAs show distinct profiles in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and subtypes much of GABAergic neurons. Even within neurons, it has been demonstrated that some of the pre-miRNAs are highlyexpressed in the dendrites where they can be locally transcribed into mature miRNAs65 and can locally regulate mRNA translation. These include synaptically enriched miRNAs: miR-200c, miR-339, miR-332, miR-318, miR-29a, miR-7, and miR-137.65,66 Several of the miRNAs are also expressed in the exons and presynaptic nerve terminals; some of them (miR-16, miR-221, miR-204, miR-15b) are highly expressed in distal axons compared with cell bodies.67 Moreover, a number of miRNAs encoded by a common pri-miRNA were differentially expressed in the distal axons, suggesting that there is a differential subcellular transport of miRNAs derived from the same coding region of the genome.

Figure 3 Subtyping psychiatric patients according to quantitativ

Figure 3. Subtyping psychiatric patients according to quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) profile. A cluster analysis on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) revealed two distinct clusters (Figure 4). 5,6 While the patients could be identified by qEEG as OCD, they clustered into two groupings. Being able to cluster individuals has no meaning if the cluster is not related to something useful. The question was, do these clusters differ

in some clinically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical meaningful fashion? It turned out that members of cluster 1 were predominantly nonresponders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), while members of cluster 2 were predominantly responders to SSRIs. These rates of response and nonresponse of approximately 80% are astonishing, especially given the fact that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the data were derived

from the scalp and not from the actual source of the abnormality. Three-dimensional source localization via variable resolution electrical tomography (VARETA) or magnetoencephalography would undoubtedly yield results that are more refined. Figure 4. Cluster analysis of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) data in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Figure 5 shows differences between positron emission tomography (PET) images in OCD responders to SSRI treatment at baseline and after successful treatment with SSRI.7 The localization of the metabolic changes was consistent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the RRG source localization of the abnormal activity. Figure 5. Positron emission tomography (PET) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) responders (n=20) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment: comparisons between drug-free baseline and retest. AC, anterior cingulate. A similar clustering algorithm was utilized for patients selleck chemical suffering from attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The cohort, of ADD cases was divided into two clusters: 76% of cluster 1 responded to methylphenidate, whereas 62% of cluster 2 responded better to dextroamphetamine (Table I). In other words, despite the total similarity of these cases clinically, the

differential response to methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was determined to a large extent by the distinctive pathophysiology revealed by cluster membership. Again, this cluster membership was determined by the scalp signal and not based on three-dimensional source localization (Figure 6). Figure 6. Group average topographic Z maps of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) clusters within the attention-deficit disorder almost (ADD) population. Table I. Relationship between quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) cluster membership and response to treatment in children with attention-deficient disorder. VARETA images were computed at the qEEG frequencies where the most significant changes occurred. Figure 7 shows VARETA images taken at 6.63 Hz on dextroamphetamine responders before and after medication. One can sec the obvious normalization with medication. Figure 7.

The iron atoms on the nanoparticle surface were coordinated via t

The iron atoms on the nanoparticle surface were coordinated via the 1,2-diols of the PGA block, which resulted in particle stabilization [159]. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by carboxyl coordination of the surface oxide molecules were prepared by find more high-temperature decomposition of tris(acetylacetonate) iron(III) [Fe(acac)3] in the presence of monocarboxyl-terminated PEG [160]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Postproduction iron oxide nanoparticle decoration was performed using silane-terminating PEG. The silane group strongly interact with the oxide on the nanoparticle surface [161]. PEGs derivatised

with amino propyl trimethoxy silane (APTMS) or amino propyl triethoxy silane (APTES) were used. Phosphonic acid-terminated poly(oligoethylene glycol acrylate) [poly(OEGA)] was grafted to iron oxide nanoparticles

through the phosphonic acid end group that provide strong interaction with iron oxide nanoparticles. The poly(OEGA-) stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles showed significant stealth properties and exhibited Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical low BSA adsorption (<30mgg−1 nanoparticles) over a wide range of protein concentration (0.05 to 10g L−1) [162]. Iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by Fe(acac)3 decomposition in high-boiling organic solvents were postproduction PEGylated by the ligand exchange method. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The nanoparticles produced with oleic acid, hexane, or trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) coating were combined with PEG-silanes, PEG-PEI, PEG-PAMAM, PEG-fatty acid to allow Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for the coating exchange in aqueous medium [163–168]. Dopamine has been proposed as an alternative anchoring group to silane to coat magnetic

nanoparticles. Dopamine has high affinity for the iron oxide and can be conjugated to PEG through the amino Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group. PEG-dopamine was used to displace the oleate/oleylamine coating on the particles produced by high-temperature decomposition of Fe(acac)3 thereby converting the particle surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic according to a postproduction protocol [169]. “Growing from” approaches based on living radical polymerization techniques such as Atom-Transfer Radical-Polymerization (ATRP) before and Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain-Transfer (RAFT) polymerization have been largely investigated to coat preformed iron oxide nanoparticles with PEG copolymers. ATRP polymerization of PEG-methacrylate (PEG-MA) was performed in aqueous solvent after a silane initiator (4-(chloromethyl) phenyl trichlorosilane) immobilization on iron oxide nanoparticle surface. After poly(PEG-MA) grafting, the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophages was reduced from 158 to less than 2pg per cell confirming the excellent shielding capacity of this novel material [170]. Alternatively, the ATRP polymerization of the PEG-MA was performed according to a solvent-free protocol.

Discussion Health care services in slums and the health status of

Discussion Health care services in slums and the health status of their residents have become a public health challenge in the current century. The Iranian metropolis of S3I-201 mw Shiraz has a good health care network in that it provides health care access to more than 85% of its whole population.22 Nevertheless, many dwellers of the slums of this city are deprived from basic health care services.24 It is clear that the current locations of the health care centers in the slums are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not compatible with standard protocols.

The problem is compounded by the fact that there is no reliable information and evidence on the exact health status of the residents of these regions. In this study, we found out that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 21.6% of the slums were not covered by health care services; this rate is much higher than that in rural areas (less than 5%).22 Studies among slums in India25 and Africa26 have also pointed out that accessibility is a very important contributing factor in the utilization of health care services among slum dwellers.25,26 According to our study, the coverage of contraception in the rural and urban areas of Fars Province was roughly 66% and 63%, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical respectively, while this figure in the slums stood at 51%, which is significantly lower than the rate in the rural areas (P<0.001).21 Moreover, the contraceptive

prevalence rates of all methods among married women of reproductive age (15-49) in Iran is 73%,27 as opposed to 66.4% in our study. Also in our study, 19.15% of the participants were on oral contraceptives, showing that this method was the most commonly used,

while the least common one was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intramuscular injection of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (3.94%). Approximately, 28% of the women of reproductive age in our study were not using Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical any method of contraception due to a lack of accessibility to public health centers. Our findings demonstrated that 28% of the women had not registered and followed family planning programs. This could be due to difficult access to health care centers, which is compatible to other studies.25,26 According to evidence, female dwellers of slums have much higher fertility rates than their urban peers; moreover, in many regions of Asia and Africa, in the slums, fertility rates are similar to those of rural areas.9 The low coverage of family planning programs in the slums of Shiraz along with immigration from rural to urban areas has led to high first rates of population growth and consequently increased incidence rates of antisocial and risky behaviors, addiction, STDs, and other psycho-socio-medical hazards.28 In our study, over 34% of the pregnant women were deprived from maternal and postpartum health care. These statistics, when juxtaposed against the total country rates (27.5% and 15.6% for maternal and postpartum care, respectively)29are indeed disconcerting.