Only patients with continuous Medicare enrollment for 2 years bef

Only patients with continuous Medicare enrollment for 2 years before after HCC diagnosis were examined. Univariate, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate stage of HCC at diagnosis and Kaplan-Meier analyses and unadjusted selleck inhibitor and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression were

used to assess survival and mortality, respectively. Results: We identified 3,403 diagnosed with HCC between 2004 and 2007 who met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nearly a third of the cohort (30%) had hepatitis C virus infection; 26% had a hepatitis B virus infection; 14% had alcoholic liver disease; and 62% had either impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes melli-tus. In multivariable adjusted analysis, receipt of screening tests was associated with HCC stage at diagnosis only among women (Odds Ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.62[0.43–0.91]). Among men, only those of Asian race (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79) and those with HCV infection (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48–0.90) had diminished odds of late stage of HCC stage at diagnosis. Among women, being married (OR: 0.61; 95%

CI: 0.41–0.91), or having HCV infection (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40–0.90), or having alcoholic Daporinad liver disease (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21–0.94) reduced odds of late stage of HCC at diagnosis. Receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests reduced mortality in both men and women (Hazards Ratio [HR] and [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.72–0.98] and 0.83

[0.70–0.99], respectively). Conclusions: In the Medicare population, older Americans who received receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests in the two years prior to diagnosis find more with HCC experienced an improvement in survival compared to those who did not receive such care. Further studies are needed to examine the mechanism by which receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests improved survival among individuals who developed HCC. Disclosures: C. Daniel Mullins – Consulting: Amgen, Bayer, BMS, Cubist, Eisai, Genentech, Novartis, Otsuka; Grant/Research Support: Bayer, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aven-tis, GSK Charles D. Howell – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech; Grant/Research Support: Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc.

Only patients with continuous Medicare enrollment for 2 years bef

Only patients with continuous Medicare enrollment for 2 years before after HCC diagnosis were examined. Univariate, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate stage of HCC at diagnosis and Kaplan-Meier analyses and unadjusted PF-02341066 in vivo and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression were

used to assess survival and mortality, respectively. Results: We identified 3,403 diagnosed with HCC between 2004 and 2007 who met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nearly a third of the cohort (30%) had hepatitis C virus infection; 26% had a hepatitis B virus infection; 14% had alcoholic liver disease; and 62% had either impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes melli-tus. In multivariable adjusted analysis, receipt of screening tests was associated with HCC stage at diagnosis only among women (Odds Ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.62[0.43–0.91]). Among men, only those of Asian race (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79) and those with HCV infection (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48–0.90) had diminished odds of late stage of HCC stage at diagnosis. Among women, being married (OR: 0.61; 95%

CI: 0.41–0.91), or having HCV infection (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40–0.90), or having alcoholic Alectinib concentration liver disease (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21–0.94) reduced odds of late stage of HCC at diagnosis. Receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests reduced mortality in both men and women (Hazards Ratio [HR] and [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.72–0.98] and 0.83

[0.70–0.99], respectively). Conclusions: In the Medicare population, older Americans who received receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests in the two years prior to diagnosis selleck chemicals with HCC experienced an improvement in survival compared to those who did not receive such care. Further studies are needed to examine the mechanism by which receipt of routine non-HCC cancer screening tests improved survival among individuals who developed HCC. Disclosures: C. Daniel Mullins – Consulting: Amgen, Bayer, BMS, Cubist, Eisai, Genentech, Novartis, Otsuka; Grant/Research Support: Bayer, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aven-tis, GSK Charles D. Howell – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech, Vertex, Inc., Roche-Genetech; Grant/Research Support: Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc., Abbott, Eisai, Inc.

We recorded significant differences in whether the focal squirrel

We recorded significant differences in whether the focal squirrel would move away or not between our four experimental treatments (Chi-test: χ23 = 18.49, P < 0.001) (Fig. 1). When the observer remained see more on the footpath, only 22% of individuals (9

of n = 41 approached in this manner) moved away from the observer, contrasting with 63% (26 of n = 41) of squirrels approached when the observer left the footpath (χ21 = 8.20, P = 0.004). Squirrels were also more reactive when he was looking at them (χ21 = 10.24, P = 0.001). When the observer was looking at them, 40 and 90% (on footpath and off footpath, respectively) of squirrels moved away compared with only 5 and 35% when the observer was not looking at them (the remainder of individuals remained where they were). There was a significant treatment effect upon alert distance (Median test: χ23 = 30.66, P < 0.001), FID (χ23 = 32.49, P < 0.001) and distance fled (χ23 = 33.32, P < 0.001). For alert distance (Fig. 2), squirrels showed little change in behaviour when the pedestrian remained on the footpath and did not look at them (median alert distance 0 m, 0–4 m); there was no significant difference in alert distance for the other three treatments (5 m; 0–8 m). For FID and distance fled (Fig. 2), squirrels were most reactive (longer

Small molecule library distances) when approached by a pedestrian that moved off the footpaths and looked at the squirrel as he approached (FID: 4 m; 0–6.5 m; distance fled: 6 m; 0–13 m); the other three treatments were not significantly different from each other (FID: 0 m;, 0–5.5 m; distance fled: 0 m; 0–10 m). In the urban environment, the mark of a successful animal species is likely to be its ability to distinguish between innocuous stimuli and genuine risk. Eastern grey squirrels have established populations in the many cities across the globe. In this study, we show that selleck products eastern grey squirrels living in a Manhattan park show behavioural flexibility towards pedestrian activities. Squirrels allow pedestrians to approach closely compared with conspecifics in rural areas (e.g. FID 10.4 ± 6.65 m; Cooper et al., 2008). PCVST squirrels are mostly exposed to pedestrians

acting in a benign, predictable manner, but show different responses towards pedestrians showing more irregular behaviour, presumably because they perceive it as more risky. First, PCVST squirrels were more reactive when the pedestrian was looking directly at them as he approached, as has been observed in urban birds (increasing FID or other escape reactions, e.g. ceasing foraging or alarm calling, Bateman & Fleming, 2011, Clucas et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013). Second, PCVST squirrels were more reactive towards a person that diverged from ‘normal’ behaviour by not keeping to the footpaths. Similar responses have been recorded in Alpine marmots Marmota marmota (Mainini, Neuhaus & Ingold, 1993) and for American robins Turdus migratorius (Eason et al.

Methods: Treatment-experienced

Methods: Treatment-experienced BAY 80-6946 ic50 GT2/3 HCV-infected patients, the majority of whom had cirrhosis, were enrolled in a single arm, open-label study and received SOF 400 mg daily + PegIFN 180 μg weekly + RBV 1000–1200 mg daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was SVR12. Secondary objectives included safety and tolerability, resistance, and additional efficacy outcomes. Results: 47 patients were enrolled and treated; 51% had HCV GT3, 55% had compensated cirrhosis, median age 57 (range 39–72), median BMI 31 (range 21–53), 36% were IL28BCC. Overall, 42/47 (89%) achieved SVR12 with 2 virologic failures (relapses, both GT3), 2 patients have no post-treatment

follow up, and one had an early treatment discontinuation without achieving HCV RNA < LLOQ. Efficacy results are tabulated. Adverse events (AE) was consistent with PR. The most common AEs were: flu-like symptoms (55%), fatigue (32%), anemia (30%), neutropenia (23%), and nausea (17%). SAEs occurred in 4 (9%) patients; no individual SAE occurring in >1 patient. One subject discontinued treatment due to an adverse event of body pain and was then lost to follow up. Conclusions: SOF + PR for 12 weeks demonstrated high efficacy in treatment-experienced MLN0128 in vitro GT2/3 patients who have historically low response rates and limited treatment options.

SOF + PR was generally safe and well tolerated with low discontinuation rates and adverse events consistent with PegIFN + RBV treatment. SVR12 Rates in the LONESTAR-2 Study Population SVR12 Overall 42/47 (89%) Genotype 2

Overall 22/23 (96%) Genotype 2 Non-cirrhotic 9/9 (100%) Genotype 2 cirrhotic 13/14 (93%) Genotype 3 Overall 20/24 (83%) Genotype 3 Non-cirrhotic 10/12 (83%) Genotype 3 cirrhotic 10/12 (83%) SY LAU,1 RJ WOODMAN,2 check details R MCCORMICK,1 R WUNDKE,1 AJ WIGG1 1Hepatology and Liver Transplant Medicine Unit, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia, 2Division of General Practice, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia Introduction: Chronic liver disease affects 6 million Australians, and has significant economic impacts on the health care system. A chronic disease management (CDM) model for chronic liver failure (CLF) has been developed by our group and demonstrated an improvement in outpatient clinic attendance and quality of care in a randomized controlled trial setting1. However, the study did not demonstrate a reduction in hospital utilization during the 12-month study period. Our primary aim of this study was to re-examine hospital utilization by this study cohort in the longer term, after enrolment into the CDM program. Methods: For patients enrolled in the prior study data on hospitalization was reviewed for up to 24 months pre and 60 months post entry into a the CDM program. The 20 patients who acted as controls in the original CDM trial were crossed over into the CDM program at 12 months, providing hospitalization data post entry into the CDM program.

17 In recent years it has become clear that the biology of the bi

17 In recent years it has become clear that the biology of the biliary epithelial cells, the loss of which is integral to the development of cholestatic disease, is complex. In

contrast to simple models in which the mechanism of injury (be it immune, toxic, or apoptotic) is associated with irreversible loss of the biliary epithelial cells, rather a period of homeostatic proliferation occurs in which the injury and insult triggers an attempt by the body to regenerate the epithelium. The evidence regarding senescence of epithelial cells in the context of cholestatic disease would suggest that it is only when this adaptive response ultimately fails due to exhaustion of proliferative capacity that see more ductopenia occurs, leading to the biological effects of cholestasis.18, 19 It is plausible, therefore, that ATX elevation occurs in the context of cholestasis as part of this homeostatic response. In simple terms, ATX production might represent an element in the body’s attempt to mitigate against biliary epithelial cell injury through up-regulating proliferative capacity. Although

check details this is only a hypothesis, its important implication might be that modulating ATX function with the aim of reducing pruritus might limit the body’s reactive response to cholestasis. The potential effect would be that an ATX-directed therapy might improve cholestatic pruritus at the cost of worsening cholestatic biology. Until we fully understand role, if any, played by ATX in regenerative learn more capacity, and the importance of this process for disease progression, this must remain a concern. “
“Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the hepatitis C long-term treatment against cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these

values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ≥2-year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine aminotransferase [ALT] ratio, total bilirubin, and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild, or severe) over 2 years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. In all, 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values.

17 In recent years it has become clear that the biology of the bi

17 In recent years it has become clear that the biology of the biliary epithelial cells, the loss of which is integral to the development of cholestatic disease, is complex. In

contrast to simple models in which the mechanism of injury (be it immune, toxic, or apoptotic) is associated with irreversible loss of the biliary epithelial cells, rather a period of homeostatic proliferation occurs in which the injury and insult triggers an attempt by the body to regenerate the epithelium. The evidence regarding senescence of epithelial cells in the context of cholestatic disease would suggest that it is only when this adaptive response ultimately fails due to exhaustion of proliferative capacity that BYL719 concentration ductopenia occurs, leading to the biological effects of cholestasis.18, 19 It is plausible, therefore, that ATX elevation occurs in the context of cholestasis as part of this homeostatic response. In simple terms, ATX production might represent an element in the body’s attempt to mitigate against biliary epithelial cell injury through up-regulating proliferative capacity. Although

Selleckchem BAY 80-6946 this is only a hypothesis, its important implication might be that modulating ATX function with the aim of reducing pruritus might limit the body’s reactive response to cholestasis. The potential effect would be that an ATX-directed therapy might improve cholestatic pruritus at the cost of worsening cholestatic biology. Until we fully understand role, if any, played by ATX in regenerative this website capacity, and the importance of this process for disease progression, this must remain a concern. “
“Predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C is challenging. We used the hepatitis C long-term treatment against cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial database to develop two models, using baseline values of routinely available laboratory tests together with changes in these

values during follow-up to predict clinical decompensation and liver-related death/liver transplant in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Patients randomized to no treatment and who had ≥2-year follow-up without a clinical outcome were included in the analysis. Four variables (platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine aminotransferase [ALT] ratio, total bilirubin, and albumin) with three categories of change (stable, mild, or severe) over 2 years were analyzed. Cumulative incidence of clinical outcome was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome. In all, 470 patients with 60 events were used to develop models to predict clinical decompensation. Baseline values of all four variables were predictive of decompensation. There was a general trend of increasing outcomes with more marked worsening of laboratory values over 2 years, particularly for patients with abnormal baseline values.

Biopsy specimens revealed phlebosclerosis and myointimal thickeni

Biopsy specimens revealed phlebosclerosis and myointimal thickening of the veins. The diagnosis of MP

was made, and discontinuation of Orengedokuto improved her symptoms. Case2: An 80-year-old man complained of abdominal pain and vomiting. He had been taking Orengedokuto over 40 years. CT and colonoscopy showed the same observation as case 1. Colonoscopy also revealed an elevated flat tumor with shallow ulcer in the transverse colon and diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma by biopsy. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy. Histological examination revealed the Epigenetics Compound Library presence of MP. The tumor invaded into the submucosa. Immunohistochemical staining was diffusely positive for p53, negative for betacatenin, and top-down type for Ki-67. The tumor was suspected as a colitic cancer and MP was considered as a possible cause. Conclusion: Both cases took Sansisi for a long period. check details Physicians should keep MP in mind and ask for history of drug administration for patients with unexplained abdominal pain. The cancer in the latter case was suspected to be a colitic cancer. There have

been some cases with MP complicated solitary colon cancer while no literature described the association between MPand colitic cancer. It is necessary to accumulate cases to elucidate whether MP has a potential of carcinogenesis. Key Word(s): 1. herbal medicine; 2. mesenteric phlebosclerosis; 3. colonic cancer Presenting Author: YOSHIFUMI TAKAHASHI Additional Authors: KEN ICHI MIZUNO, MASAAKI KOBAYASHI, KAZUYA TAKAHASHI, YU KI NISHIGAKI, SATORU HASHIMOTO, MANABU TAKEUCHI, TAKASHI YAMAMOTO, HONDA YUTAKA, JUNJI YOKOYAMA, YU ICHI SATO Corresponding Author: YOSHIFUMI TAKAHASHI Affiliations: Department of Endoscopy, Department of Endoscopy, Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Niiga, Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Niiga, Department of Endoscopy, Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Niiga, Department of Endoscopy, Department of Endoscopy, Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Niiga, Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Niiga Objective: Endoscopic submucosal

dissection (ESD) for colorectal neoplasms was reported to provide a high en bloc resection rate with less invasiveness than surgical resection. However, detailed selleckchem long-term outcomes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the long-term outcomes of colorectal ESD. Methods: A total of 482 patients with 501 colorectal epithelial neoplasms (185 adenomas, 314 carcinomas), who were treated with colorectal ESD at a single hospital between February 2005 and December 2013, were studied. Rate of en bloc resection, en bloc plus R0 resection, major complications and local recurrence were analyzed as the short-term outcomes. The 3- and 5-year overall survival and disease-specific survival were assessed in 401 patients as the long-term outcomes.

A multidisciplinary perspective which combines qualitative analys

A multidisciplinary perspective which combines qualitative analysis with other forms of analytic technique may explain subtle differences between participants with hippocampal lesions and control participants. “
“The most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment not demented (VCIND) is cerebral small vessel disease leading to diffuse subcortical white matter lesions. While many studies indicate that the core cognitive features of VCIND are executive dysfunction and impaired processing speed, this finding is not always consistent, and may be partially dependent on the comparison RXDX-106 group applied. Hence, we undertook two systematic meta-analytic reviews on neuropsychological

test performance across eight cognitive domains: between VCIND and healthy controls (data from 27 studies), and between VCIND and non-vascular mild cognitive impairment (nv-MCI; data from 20 studies). Our quantitative synthesis of the research literature demonstrates that individuals with VCIND show weaknesses across all cognitive domains relative to healthy controls, with the greatest impairment in the domain of processing speed (Md = −1.36), and the least affected

being working memory (Md = −.48) and visuospatial construction (Md = −.63). When compared directly with nv-MCI, individuals with VCIND had significantly greater deficits in processing speed (Md = −.55) and executive functioning (Md = −.40), while those with nv-MCI exhibited a greater relative deficit in delayed memory (Md = .41). Our analyses indicate that disruption to subcortical white matter tracts BMS-777607 molecular weight impairs more cognitive processes than is find more typically thought to be directly related

to the fronto-subcortical network. The data also suggest that differing brain aetiologies can be responsible for similar cognitive profiles. Although the findings do not evince diagnostic value, they allude to the interconnectivity of disparate cognitive processes and call for further research on the behavioural outcome of network disruption. “
“Clock drawings produced by right-brain-damaged (RBD) individuals with spatial neglect often contain an abundance of empty space on the left while numbers and hands are placed on the right. However, the clock perimeter is rarely compromised in neglect patients’ drawings. By analysing clock drawings produced by 71 RBD and 40 healthy adults, this study investigated whether the geometric characteristics of the clock perimeter reveal novel insights to understanding spatial neglect. Neglect participants drew smaller clocks than either healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. While healthy participants’ clock perimeter was close to circular, RBD participants drew radially extended ellipses. The mechanisms for these phenomena were investigated by examining the relation between clock-drawing characteristics and performance on six subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT).

87,88 Moore’s transplant

interests were not confined to t

87,88 Moore’s transplant

interests were not confined to the liver. This can be perceived most clearly by reading his book, Give and Take,89 and his autobiography, A Miracle and a Privilege,90 written four decades later. see more Epitomizing his ubiquitous presence, Moore presided as chief of surgery at the Brigham over the clinical renal transplant trials of Murray and Merrill that yielded the world’s first example in any species of survival of an organ allograft for 1 year or longer.91 In this case, the kidney from a fraternal twin was transplanted to his irradiated brother on January 24, 1959, and functioned for the next 20 years without maintenance immunosuppression (Table 2). From my point of view, this faint signal that the genetic/immunologic barrier to organ alloengraftment might be surmountable made the liver transplant objective less distant. It seemed almost providential that the 5-year Markle Scholarship and NIH funding (1959-1964) for my liver project began a few months after the fraternal twin transplantation. The 5 years was equally split between Northwestern where I was elevated to a junior faculty position on July 1, 1959,

and the University Hydroxychloroquine price of Colorado where I was appointed Associate Professor of Surgery and Chief Surgeon at the Denver VA Hospital from November 1961. Until 1958-1960, the only organ allograft whose unmodified rejection had been thoroughly studied was the kidney. Rejection to death of our canine liver recipients usually occurred in 5-10 days.3 However, in rare outliers in which the biochemical indices of rejection improved spontaneously, the liver allograft’s dominant histopathologic findings by 3 weeks were those of repair and regeneration.92 These were the first recorded exceptions to the existing dogma (based on skin graft research) that rejection, once started, was inexorable. In the multivisceral grafts (Fig. 3), the pathology was subtly different. Rejection of the various organs, if they were part of the multivisceral graft, was less severe than when the organs were transplanted

alone. Moreover, there was overt evidence in recipient tissues of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, selleck kinase inhibitor but without a skin rash or other manifestations of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).7 The double immune reaction (host-versus-graft [HVG] and GVH) exposed by those experiments was shown a third of a century later to be a feature of alloengraftment and acquired tolerance no matter what the transplanted organ (see below). Both my liver-alone and multivisceral transplant models were generally viewed as technical exercises of little if any scientific interest. One reason was the prevailing view that was concisely expressed in 1961 by the 1960 Nobel Laureate F. M. Burnet in a New England Journal of Medicine review titled, “The New Approach to Immunology”.

(HEPATOLOGY 2011) In recent years many efforts have been aimed at

(HEPATOLOGY 2011) In recent years many efforts have been aimed at generating pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by inducing high levels of expression of a combination of transcription factors including Sox2, Oct3/4 (henceforth referred to as Oct4), Nanog, Klf4, and cMyc.1-5 Initially, retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, was shown to be sufficient to convert mouse fibroblasts to embryonic stem cell-like phenotype.6 Later, pluripotent stem cells were generated from adult mouse liver and stomach cells,7 human somatic cells,8 and human buy Idelalisib primary hepatocytes.9 Recently, generation of pluripotent stem cells without viral integration

by repeated transfection of expression plasmids10, 11 and by protein transfer12, 13 have overcome the risks of tumorigenicity associated with viral integration. Although these reprogramming factors are expressed in stem cells, their expression in adult somatic cells with high potential for clonal expansion such as hepatocytes has been less explored. Primary hepatocytes show limited ability to proliferate in culture except under the influence of chemically defined HGM medium containing the primary Copanlisib clinical trial mitogens hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (henceforth referred to as growth factors [GF]).14

Under these conditions, hepatocytes undergo multiple proliferative cycles, express altered levels of hepatocyte-associated transcription factors, and lose characteristic gene expression markers such as albumin. In the presence of specific matrix components such as Matrigel, they redifferentiate and revert to a mature

hepatocyte phenotype.15 In the present study we examined whether primary hepatocytes express any of the iPS-reprogramming factors in culture and if their expression changes as a result of growth factor-induced proliferation. Transcription factor REST (RE-1 silencing transcription factor; also called NRSF) has been shown to regulate the expression of these self-renewal and reprogramming factors in mouse embryonic stem cells.16 Thus, we looked at REST expression to see if it was see more expressed in our model and if it regulates the expression of any of the reprogramming factors. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated on collagen-coated plates and incubated in the presence of HGM medium with (+GF) or without growth factors (−GF) over a period of 10 days. Plates were harvested at day 0 (2-hour plated), 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after plating for analysis of message and protein by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. EGF, epidermal growth factor; GF, growth factor; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; MESC, mouse embryonic stem cells; MTG, Matrigel; PHX, 70% partial hepatectomy; REST, RE-1 silencing transcription factor.