Based on the functions of aleurone and modified aleurone, the num

Based on the functions of aleurone and modified aleurone, the number of SGs accumulating in different region of endosperm was in the order subaleurone > central endosperm > modified aleurone. The subaleurone in dorsal endosperm had more SGs than the ventral endosperm, probably owing to their proximity and the availability of additional sucrose from modified aleurone. N is the most important

nutrient affecting grain quality, especially in PB accumulation, but little information is available on the effects of N on the distribution of SGs. In the present study we found that N markedly influenced the distribution of SGs. However, our results show some disagreement with those of previous research on the effects of N on SGs in wheat endosperm. Gu et al. PLX3397 order [28] reported that increasing N fertilization increased the proportion of A-type SGs and decreased that B-type SGs in strong-gluten wheat, but that

the effects selleckchem were the opposite in weak- and medium-gluten wheat and, moreover, that increasing N fertilization decreased amylose contents. In contrast, Li et al. [33] suggested that N in the range of 0–240 kg ha− 1 improved the proportion of B-type SGs and amylose and amylopectin contents, but that excess nitrogen decreased starch content. The results obtained in the present study showed that N applied at 240 kg ha− 1 at the booting stage increased the number of B-type SGs in different regions of the endosperm, ID-8 in agreement with Li et al. [33]. The difference in the results may have resulted not only from the cultivars selected and the periods of N application, but from the methods of measurement or calculations used by the software. A-type starch granules generally have higher amylase contents than do smaller granules [34]. Thus, N fertilizer not only affects distribution of A-type and B-type but also affects the content and proportion of starch in wheat grains. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of SGs in different regions of endosperm and their response to N. We speculate that in practice the distribution of A- to B-type SGs is regulated by the timing and amount of

N fertilizer applied. However, only one variety of wheat, cv. Xumai 30, a hard red winter wheat, was observed in this study. Although Xumai 30 is widely grown in agricultural production, other varieties should be studied in the future. This study also did not address the effect of N on starch granules and its relation to the starch component of SGs, questions that await further study. The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (31171482), Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation (BK2011445), Jiangsu Graduate Innovation Project (CXLX12-0910), and the Priority Academic Program Development from Jiangsu Government, China. “
“The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, is a serious sap-sucking pest of rice (Oryza sativa L.

This subaverage for each data entry is calculated as the grand av

This subaverage for each data entry is calculated as the grand average (with one participant removed). Therefore when N = 18 participants, each data entry is the mean of 17 participants instead of one ( Bryce et al., 2011, Miller et al., 1998 and Ulrich and Miller, 2001). This method is found to reduce variation

and increase signal to noise ratio. In order to compensate for the artificial reduction of variance a correction is used to adjust the critical F value. Onset latencies of the smoothed LRP waveform were determined at 70% of the relevant peak’s amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded using EMG. Using an MP150 data acquisition unit (Biopac Inc.) EMG was measured by EMG110C amplifiers. EMG110S shielded touch-proof leads where connected to two disposable cloth-based hypoallergenic Ag-AgCl EL504 recording disc electrodes. The electrodes were placed along the left Everolimus solubility dmso and right flexors of the thumb (flexor pollicis BIBF 1120 clinical trial brevis). An electrode on the left elbow was used as a ground. Before the electrodes were applied the skin was washed with soap and cleaned with alcohol wipes. The electrodes were attached by adhesive solid gel. EMG was sampled at 2000 Hz and band-pass filtered between 10 and 500 Hz. The data were then rectified and scaled relative to the maximum

amplitude in each individual as measured from continuous data. EMG was baseline corrected between −100 and 0 msec relative to stimulus presentation and is displayed as a percentage of the maximum value measured. Epochs extended from −100 to 1000 msec relative to stimulus presentation. Grand average EMG waves were calculated for each condition and smoothed with a 50 msec moving average window. Point-by-point group (3) × congruency (3) ANOVAs were performed on the mean amplitudes of correct hand activity and incorrect hand activity between 200 and 600 msec. In order for effects to be considered significant they had to be longer than 20 sampling points at an alpha

level of p < .01 ( Szucs and Soltész, 2010a and Szucs et al., 2009b). As stated previously, first the major ERP components (P3a, P3b, N450 and LRP) were identified in the original (raw) ERP waveforms to examine differences in the early stimulus and later response stages of processing. Second, group × congruency ANOVA's were examined to isolate congruency effects. If significant congruency effects were identified, stimulus and response Linifanib (ABT-869) conflict effects in the difference waves were analyzed (RC − CON, SC − CON, RC − SC). Accuracy and RT values are presented in Table 2. A repeated measures ANOVA of group (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults) × condition was performed on RT and accuracy data. In terms of accuracy there was a significant congruency effect [F(2,102) = 8.63, ɛ = .536, p = .0040]. Post hoc Tukey contrasts revealed that there were more incorrect responses in the RC condition compared to SC condition (p = .0012, 88.9 vs 93.8%) and compared to the congruent condition (p = .

In coastal waters, temporal and spatial variations of pH are much

In coastal waters, temporal and spatial variations of pH are much larger than those in the open ocean. For example, the average range of diel pH variation in Tampa Bay, Florida, can be as great as 0.22 (Yates et al., 2007). In the controlled environments of marine aquaria and especially aquaculture, pH measurement requirements are likewise less stringent than those in open ocean settings. For a saltwater aquarium,

a pH range of 8.1–8.3 is acceptable (Blasiola, 2000). A typical aquaculture pond should have a pH range of 7–8 (Egna and Boyd, 1997). In many operational settings, the use of pH test strips or consumer-level potentiometric probes is common. These methods offer the benefits of low cost and portability but have precisions on the order of 0.1–0.5 pH units. Few options have been available in the intermediate ranges of simplicity, accuracy, and precision.

Recently, TGF-beta inhibitor technological innovations have paved the way for the development of new sensors to fill this intermediate niche at low cost. Light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), widely used in many spectrophotometric devices (Dasgupta et al., 1993, Gaião et al., 2008, Li et al., 2003, Ma et al., 2011, Veras et al., 2009 and Vreman et al., 1998), are inexpensive, power-saving, compact, and sufficiently robust for field use. The combination of LED light sources, integrated optical detection circuits, and simple microcontrollers enables the development of sturdy, easy-to-use photometers that can provide pH field measurements of much higher accuracy and precision than pH electrodes but at roughly the same cost. This paper describes ABT-737 clinical trial the development of a portable microcontrolled LED photometer for spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements using meta-cresol purple (mCP). The instrument components are commercially available and the design is sufficiently simple that

“do-it-yourself” (DIY) construction is possible. A one-time calibration method was also developed to improve the accuracy of the pH measurements. The performance of the photometer was evaluated by comparisons against the performance of a high-accuracy benchtop spectrophotometer in laboratory, shipboard, and aquarium settings. much The indicator mCP was purified from sodium salt (Alfa Aesar, Batch H11N06) according to the procedure of Patsavas et al. (2013). A 10 mmol·L− 1 mCP stock solution in 0.7 mol·kg− 1 NaCl was used for all measurements. The R-ratio of the stock solution was adjusted to 1.6 by an addition of 1 N HCl or 1 N NaOH (Sigma-Aldrich). Tris acidimetric SRM 723e (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) was obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for preparing the tris-buffered synthetic seawater ( Dickson et al., 2007). High-purity salts (NaCl, KCl, and Na2SO4) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. The terms on the right side of Eq.

Compared with aluminium salts, a stronger immune response, eg hig

Compared with aluminium salts, a stronger immune response, eg higher

antibody and T-cell response, is elicited ( Seubert et al., 2008). MF59™ is present in licensed seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines ( Table 4.1). It enhances immune responses in the elderly population and can facilitate immune responses against specific drift variants of the seasonal influenza virus not included in the vaccine. MF59™ demonstrated how an adjuvant can improve the immune response to a classical vaccine in a challenging population, such as the elderly, which is affected by immune senescence ( Podda, 2001). Clinical studies with an MF59™-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine showed antigen-sparing www.selleckchem.com/products/dabrafenib-gsk2118436.html abilities, and for the H5N1 vaccine, the induction of some cross-reactivity versus different viral clades ( Banzhoff et al., 2009). The induction of cross-reactive immunity against drifted strains may be very important during a pandemic, as it is very likely that the emerging virus will continue to mutate as the pandemic proceeds. A thermo-reversible oil-in-water emulsion containing squalene, emulsified with surfactants, is present in the formulation of an H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine which was licensed in Europe in 2010 (Table 4.1). The mechanism of action has not yet been http://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html reported. Well-known adjuvants, such as aluminium salts, oil-in-water emulsions

or liposomes, are combined with other compounds which act as immuno-enhancers to better modulate and guide specific components of the immune system aiming to achieve the desired immune response. The more complex formulations, comprising three or more adjuvant components, are designed in particular to induce more potent cellular immune responses (see Chapter 2 – Vaccine immunology). The first example of a combination of adjuvants is the Adjuvant System (AS) 04 (AS04), which is based on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derivative, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and aluminium salts ( Figure 4.7). LPS, derived from Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent immunostimulant and a specific TLR4 agonist. MPL is

obtained by mild hydrolysis and further purification of LPS derived from Salmonella minnesota. The product has similar immunostimulatory properties to LPS, but lacks the reactogenicity ADAMTS5 of native LPS. In AS04, MPL is adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate, depending on the vaccine with which it is used. In AS04, MPL plays a crucial role in the activation of the innate immune system. Direct stimulation of TLR4 leads to the maturation of APCs, inducing the expression of cytokines that in turn enhance the adaptive immune response by stimulating the maturation of Th cells, in particular Th1. Therefore, recognition of MPL by TLR4 leads to enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses. AS04 has to be administered at the same injection site as the antigen – together or within 24 h – to exert its effect.

01%), which was used as a non-specific, non-biological positive c

01%), which was used as a non-specific, non-biological positive control. Taking the muscle injury induced by Triton X-100 to be 100%, the myotoxic damage of the B. jararaca and L. obliqua venoms reached 58.8% and 39.6%, respectively, in our experimental conditions.

Because the maintenance of genomic stability is essential for cellular function, we measured the genotoxic effects induced by L. obliqua experimental envenomation in vivo ( Fig. 6). In the first set of experiments, DNA damage in the different organs and lymphocytes of rats 12 h after LOBE injection (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was assessed using the alkaline comet assay. For all samples, cell viability was evaluated using PLX4720 the trypan blue exclusion method

and was found to be greater than 90% in every experiment. The internal controls for the comet assay, using human blood cells, showed low damage in the negative control (DI = 0–10) and high damage in the positive control (DI = 180–300), thus validating the test conditions. As expected, exposure of the lymphocytes, heart, lungs, liver and kidney cells that had been isolated from normal animals to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), which was used as positive control, resulted in a significant increase in DNA damage (not shown). As shown in CHIR-99021 manufacturer Fig. 6A, envenomed rats displayed high levels of DNA damage in the cells of all organs evaluated, as well as in the lymphocytes. The damage levels in the cells of the control Dichloromethane dehalogenase animals (those that had been injected with PBS) did not change significantly. The damage index in lymphocytes and kidneys reached levels that were 6.4 and 5.4 times higher than the levels in their respective controls. In another set of experiments, the kidneys were chosen to determine the temporal pattern of DNA damage at distinct time points after LOBE injection. In such cases, kidneys were selected because they had the highest damage index among the organs examined and also due to the high incidence of renal injury observed in human patients (Gamborgi et al., 2006). At 6 h,

kidney DNA damage had increased, reaching a maximal level at 12 h. After 48 h, the damage index decreased but was still significantly different from the controls (Fig. 6B). In order to verify the oxidative nature of the DNA damage detected in the kidney cells of LOBE-injected rats, we carried out a modified comet assay. While the alkaline test normally detects primarily repairable DNA single- and double-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, the modified version is more specific to oxidative damage than the standard method. The modified version includes an incubation step with lesion-specific endonucleases that recognize resultant abasic sites and convert them into single-strand breaks. In the present study, we used Fpg, which is specific for oxidized purines, and Endo III, which targets oxidized pyrimidines.

5) and a 1 8–2 0 Gy equivalent dose of ∼100–120 Gy As a general

5) and a 1.8–2.0 Gy equivalent dose of ∼100–120 Gy. As a general rule, the prostate target volume with or without the seminal

vesicles should be covered by at least 95% of the prescription dose (i.e., V100 prostate >95%). Maintenance of dose constraints to OARs is equally important. The urethra maximum dose should be below 110% (ideally V100 urethra <90%). We recommend further reduction to 105% for patients who have had a TURP; and it is advisable to wait for wound healing at least 3 months between TURP and prostate brachytherapy. selleck products The rectal dose constraints should be 75–80% (e.g., V75 rectum <1%). Bladder dosimetry should be considered in terms of minimum and maximum so the dose to bladder wall (surrogate for the peripheral base of the prostate) does not receive <80% nor the bladder neck and trigone >80% (V80 bladder neck <1%). Updated European

and American guidelines for HDR prostate brachytherapy that include normal tissue dose constraints have been recently published Selleckchem Epacadostat [37] and [38]. A summary of the clinical experience with HDR monotherapy can be found in Table 1 (the treatment protocols), Table 2 (late toxicity), and Table 3 (clinical outcomes). In May 1995, the first trial of prostate cancer HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy was opened at the University of Osaka, Japan and reported by Yoshioka et al. in 2000 (11). The original treatment regimen was 48 Gy in eight fractions and five consecutive days delivered with a single implant. In November 1996, the radiation dose was increased to 54 Gy in nine fractions over 5 days. The treatments were delivered

twice daily with an interfraction time of 6 h. Interestingly, 19/22 patients had high-risk features, either T3–4 disease or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, and they check details received hormonal therapy. They reported their results in 112 patients (68 high-risk) in 2011 (39). Intermediate-risk patients and those patients with prostate volumes >40 cm3 received 6–12 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and high-risk patients were treated adjuvant ADT for 3 years to life. The 5-year PSA disease–free survival was 83% (low 85%, intermediate 93%, and high 79%), local control 97%, disease–free survival 87%, and overall survival 96%. Initial PSA and younger age were the only significant prognostic variables. Most toxicity was genitourinary (GU). Acute Grade 3 “Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events” (CTCAE) toxicity was observed in 6 patients. There were thirteen Grade 2 and three Grade 3 toxicities reported. A detailed dosimetry analysis of late toxicity in 83 patients treated with 54 Gy in nine fractions (median followup 3 years) was reported in 2009 (40). Toxicity correlations with dose volume histogram parameters revealed greatest difference for rectal toxicity were the V40 (volume of rectum that receives 40% of the prescription dose) and the D5 (the dose to 5 cm3 of the rectum). Rectal toxicity (V40 ≥ 8 cm3 vs.

Written education about central sensitization and pain physiology

Written education about central sensitization and pain physiology alone is insufficient. Nevertheless, an educational booklet about pain physiology is highly appreciated

by fibromyalgia patients (Ittersum et al., in press), indicating that it can be used in conjunction with face-to-face educational meetings. From the available evidence it is concluded that face-to-face sessions of pain physiology education, in conjunction with written educational material, are effective for changing pain perceptions and health status in patients with various chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders, including those with chronic low back pain, chronic whiplash, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Practice guidelines on how to apply pain physiology education in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain are provided below (and are summarized in Fig. 1). Prior Depsipeptide chemical structure to commencing pain physiology education, it is important firstly to ascertain that pain physiology education is indicated in the chronic pain patient. Pain

physiology education is indicated when: 1) the clinical picture is characterized and dominated by central sensitization; and 2) maladaptive pain cognitions, illness perceptions or coping strategies are present. Both indications are prerequisites for commencing pain physiology education. Some (acute) musculoskeletal pain patients may not fulfil these requirements PD0332991 datasheet initially, but will do so later on during their course of treatment (e.g. a patient receiving physiotherapy for an acute GBA3 muscle strain experiencing a whiplash trauma). To examine whether central sensitization is present, clinicians can use guidelines for the recognition of central sensitization in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (Nijs et al., 2010). In the assessment of illness perceptions patients must be asked about their perceptions

about the cause of pain, the consequences, the treatment and the timeline of pain. Maladaptive pain cognitions include ruminating about pain, and hypervigilance to somatic signs, each of which can be easily assessed with short self-reported measures with excellent psychometric properties (e.g. the Pain Catastrophizing Scale1, Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire2, etc.) (Sullivan et al., 1995, Van Damme et al., 2002 and Kraaimaat and Evers, 2003). Likewise, illness perception can be questioned or can be assessed by use of the brief Illness Perception Questionnaire3 (Broadbent et al., 2006). This information addressing pain perceptions and coping strategies should be used by the therapist to tailor the individual education sessions (remember that pain physiology education aims to reconceptualise pain). It is essential for clinicians to explain the treatment rationale and discuss the practical issues of the treatment with the patient. In case of central sensitization and chronic musculoskeletal pain, explaining the treatment rationale is of prime importance. Basically, patients should understand the mechanism of central sensitization.

At the completion of the extraction procedure, no sample clean-up

At the completion of the extraction procedure, no sample clean-up procedures were performed and the extraction solvent was concentrated, unless gross oil contamination was observed, to a final volume of 1–2 ml using rotary evaporation and blow-down with nitrogen gas. The QC/MS was set up for detection limits of 1 ppb in sample extracts and was typically linear over four or five orders of magnitude.

If samples contained large amounts of oil, as seen by particularly dark color of the methylene chloride extracts, then they were diluted as appropriate to bring the amount injected into the calibration range. The samples were analyzed by GC/MS-SIM to quantify the target petrogenic hydrocarbons, including the normal and branched saturated hydrocarbons (from nC10 to nC35, pristane and phytane), the two- to six-ringed PAHs and their respective C1 to C3 or C4 alkyl GSK126 cell line homologs (Table 2). Ion chromatograms for the hopanes, steranes, and triaromatic steroids biomarker compounds were acquired using ions 191, 217, 218, and 231). All GC/MS-SIM analyses used a Agilent 7890A GC system configured with a 5% diphenyl/95%

dimethyl polysiloxane high-resolution capillary column (30 m, 0.25 mm ID, 0.25 μm film) directly interfaced to an Agilent 5975 inert XL MS detector system. The GC flow rates were optimized to provide the required degree of separation, with particular attention given to nC17 and pristane which should be near-baseline resolved. An Agilent 7683B series injector was used in splitless mode to inject 1 μL of sample into check details the GC/MS system. The GC injection temperature was set at 280 °C and only high-temperature,

low thermal-bleed septa were used in the GC inlet. The GC was operated in temperature program mode RVX-208 with an initial column temperature of 60 °C for 3 min, and then increased to 280 °C at a rate of 5 °C min−1 and held for 3 min. The oven was then heated from 280 °C to 300 °C at a rate of 1.5 °C min−1 and held at 300 °C for 2 min. The total run time was 65.33 min per sample. The interface to the MS was maintained at 300 °C. The MS was operated in the Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode to ensure low level detection of the target constituents associated with crude oil in sediment samples. The MS was tuned to PFTBA (perfluorotributylamine) before each set of analyses. If any of the tune parameters (e.g., percent air/water, peak abundances and ratios) were significantly different from prior tune parameter values, then the instrument was checked for error-causing problems (e.g., air leaks, worn septum, dirty liner, etc.) and then returned to normal operating conditions. Internal standards were added to the sample extracts just before the GC/MS-SIM analysis. The internal standard mix included naphthalene-d8, acenaphthalene-d10, chrysene-d12, and perylene-d12 (AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT).

To be more informative, the thresholds are therefore mapped to th

To be more informative, the thresholds are therefore mapped to the original ones using Euclidean distance. Thresholds are then sorted by GSI-IX mw frequency and the Q first thresholds of each biomarker are selected for an exhaustive search. At the programming level, the ICBT search was optimized to run faster. First, it was implemented in the compiled programming language Java, which typically runs much faster than interpreted languages such as R, Perl or Python. Efficient implementation was achieved by minimizing the creation of objects, using explicit programmatic loops instead of recursion, and multithreading. Biomarkers

with missing values are ignored. Missing value imputations must be performed before submitting the data to PanelomiX (see [23] for an in-depth review of this topic). Cross-validation is a simple and widely used computational method to assess a classification model’s performance and robustness [1] and [10]. PanelomiX features a CV procedure for panel verification [10]. Its primary goal is to test panel performance in an unbiased manner and to produce graphical diagnostic plots for evaluating consistency and robustness. After CV, ROC analyses are performed on the individual

biomarkers and Gefitinib mouse the panel, and several plots are generated to assess the quality of the data. A standard, k-fold cross-validation (CV) scheme is used to compare the different models generated. To avoid model-to-model scoring differences and make predictions comparable between the CV steps, which may produce panels of different lengths with different Ts, the

prediction is centred as follows: Yp=Sp−TsYp=Sp−Ts equation(5) Zp(Yp)=Yp/Ts,Yp<0Yp/(n−Ts),Yp>0As a result, the centred vector Z of patient scores is in the [−1;+1] interval and Ts = 0. We perform ROC analysis of the curves of both the individual biomarkers and the panels using the pROC tool [22] in R [24]. Three tables are generated showing AUC, sensitivity, and specificity, all with confidence intervals. The first table reports the ROC performance of single biomarkers and their best univariate thresholds; the second table shows the oxyclozanide comparison of the panel with the best individual biomarker (analysed as a panel composed of 1 biomarker, to be comparable with the other panels); and the third table compares the ICBT panel with other classic combination methods. Comparisons between two AUCs are performed using DeLong’s test [25] and between two pAUCs using the bootstrap test [22] with 10 000 stratified replicates. The ROC curves of the CV are built as the mean of centred predictions over the k CV folds. For the CV of the individual biomarkers, the ICBT algorithm is applied with n = 1 and no other modification. Users can access a password-protected server implementing the algorithms described in this article from the following website: http://www.panelomix.net.

The researchers propose that it is this assumption that has led t

The researchers propose that it is this assumption that has led to the collapse of lower trophic level species [34]. An overexploitation of these lower-trophic level species would be devastating to an ecosystem. In his trophodynamic ecosystem model, Gascuel concluded that fisheries targeting lower trophic levels have greater total yields. Gascuel notes that, “high exploitation rates associated selleck chemicals to low trophic levels… can lead to collapse of total biomass, with

for instance a five times reduction in our simulations” [27]. This complete ecosystem collapse is likely due to the loss of prey for higher-level organisms as well as deleterious harvesting methodologies typically employed in low-level fisheries (e.g., bottom trawling which inherently requires benthic habitat degradation) [35]. Together, this evidence suggests that targeting of lower-level species for exploitation will cause detrimental effects throughout the food web because fishers are both decreasing abundance of the targeted species as well as directly competing with upper-level species. The increase to overfishing scenario would

encompass an increase in fishing effort across all trophic levels. In their 2010 Selleckchem Baf-A1 article, Branch et al. propose that this scenario of overfishing would account for the greatest percentage of collapsed stocks [5]. This seems likely, as the sensitive higher trophic level species, as discussed previously, would risk collapse under relatively light fishing pressure. This scenario, however, suggests that fishing pressure would continuously increase until the fishery capacity is reached. The constant increase in fishing pressure would certainly result in the population collapse of high-level piscivorous fish. In addition to the collapse of high-level species, an increase in fishing pressure is also experienced at lower trophic

levels. This many infinite increase in fishing pressure will inevitably lead to the collapse of all stocks. The sequential increase in fishing pressure on specific trophic levels, however, would likely result in the sequential collapse of fisheries, giving managers an opportunity to prevent additional collapses. A steady increase in fishing pressure across all trophic levels, however, could result in a simultaneous decline and eventual collapse of all stocks in an ecosystem, providing managers with no opportunity to react. In Trevor Branch’s 2010 analysis, he concluded that fishing down and fishing through would both result in a declining catch-based MTL. Fishing down would yield a steeper decline initially, however the two scenarios would reach the same minimum trophic value ( Table 1). In contrast, the number of collapsed species would be much higher in the fishing down scenario, likely due to abundant trophic cascades. Branch also concluded that the increase to overfishing scenario would result in a minimal change in MTL, but the highest percentage of collapsed species [5].