The data represent the average change (n-fold) determined from at

The data represent the average change (n-fold) determined from at least three independent experiments. As a control we used the housekeeping gene gapdh, which was carefully validated before its use in quantitative mRNA assays with 16S rRNA gene expression as an internal control obtained under the same conditions and determined

from at least three independent experiments. Growth temperature regulates the production and specificity of CPS in E. coli K92 (González-Clemente et al., 1990; Navasa et al., 2009). We therefore sought to determine whether the genes responsible for capsular metabolism and regulation are modulated at temperatures that represent the mammalian host (37 °C) and at ambient conditions (19 °C). Parallel cultures grown at 37 and 19 °C

in xylose–asparagine defined medium selleck products with aeration (González-Clemente et al., 1990; Navasa et al., 2009) were harvested at the exponential phase around 29–31 generations after inoculation. Thus, the results obtained reflect the adapted state and signify genes whose expression is differentially maintained over long-term growth at a given temperature (White-Ziegler et al., 2007). Of the genes studied and that we considered as representative (Fig. 1) and directly involved in the metabolism and/or control of both capsular polymers, 19 were found to be highly expressed at 37 °C (Tables 2–4), whereas nine genes were predominantly expressed at 19 °C (Table 3). The validity of the experimental design is supported by the fact that all genes contained on the kps cluster showed the greatest isometheptene increase at 37 °C (more Selleck Inhibitor Library than 500-fold

in the case of the neuE and neuS genes). To analyse expression levels of the genes of the kps cluster, we selected one or more genes of each functional region (Fig. 1a). Because regions 1 and 3 of group 2 capsules are organized in two different transcriptional units (Pazzani et al., 1993; Cieslewicz & Vimr, 1996; Stevens et al., 1997), we studied the expression of the first genes of each region (kpsF and kpsM, respectively) as representatives. We also analysed the expression of all neu genes located on the specific 2 region (Whitfield, 2006). As shown in Table 2, the expression levels of all genes of the kps cluster studied (namely kps of regions 1 and 3 and neu of region 2) were significantly increased at 37 °C compared with at 19 °C (above 15-fold in most cases) while more than a 500-fold increase was observed for the neuE and neuS genes. Higher expression levels were observed in genes belonging to region 2 (neu genes), while expression levels of kpsF (region 1) were lower than those obtained for other genes of the cluster (between five- and 30-fold lower). We also analysed the effect of growth temperature on expression levels of the genes involved in sialic acid catabolism (Kalivoda et al., 2003; Vimr et al., 2004) in E. coli K92 (Fig. 1b).

55, P = 0032), Time (F1,15 = 526, P = 0037) and Region (F1,15 

55, P = 0.032), Time (F1,15 = 5.26, P = 0.037) and Region (F1,15 = 6.45, P = 0.023), and a Palbociclib in vivo Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over

the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.97, P = 0.06). The within-modality anova revealed a main effect of Trial (F1,15 = 5.55, P = 0.032) and a Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.98, P = 0.06). The behavioral data did not exhibit any overt indication of a classical local switch cost. However, in light of the current findings regarding alpha oscillatory processes and as suggested by a reviewer, we sought to probe deeper into the behavioral data in order to explore the relationship of the relative

behavioral success of a given task-set reconfiguration to the current findings in the oscillatory domain. Certainly prior work has shown links between the effectiveness of alpha-band deployment mechanisms and subsequent task success (Thut et al., 2006; Kelly et al., 2009). To do this, we undertook a post hoc analysis in which we sorted individual trials based on RT. On an individual participant basis, we split CT99021 cost experimental trials based upon the median RT within a given condition (i.e. repeat-auditory, switch-auditory, repeat-visual and switch-visual). Dividing each of these original four conditions by the median of the RT distribution yielded what we will refer to as ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ conditions for each participant and for each of the original conditions. The reasoning behind this approach is that a fast-switch trial reflects a more successful task-set reconfiguration than a slow-switch trial. This comes with the necessary caveat that a raw RT value on any given trial is by no means a direct index of successful task-set reconfiguration. That is, a relatively fast response on a switch

trial is not a pure index Ribonucleotide reductase of a successful switch but necessarily indexes the multiple underlying neural events that give rise to the stochastic nature of RT. Thus, in an attempt to bolster the relevance of fast and slow trials to the successful instantiation of a new task set, we performed the following additional analysis. First, both hit trials (a correct response on a go trial) and false alarm (FA) trials (a mistaken response on a no-go trial) were included in the RT distributions of each of the experimental conditions. Next, after performing the median splits of these distributions, the proportion of hits relative to false alarms was calculated [i.e. hits/(hits + FAs)] yielding what we will refer to as the success rate. Behavioral success rates were then submitted to a 2 × 2 × 2 repeated-measures anova with factors of Modality (visual vs. auditory), Trial (switch vs. repeat) and Speed (fast RTs vs. slow RTs).

55, P = 0032), Time (F1,15 = 526, P = 0037) and Region (F1,15 

55, P = 0.032), Time (F1,15 = 5.26, P = 0.037) and Region (F1,15 = 6.45, P = 0.023), and a Acalabrutinib research buy Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over

the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.97, P = 0.06). The within-modality anova revealed a main effect of Trial (F1,15 = 5.55, P = 0.032) and a Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.98, P = 0.06). The behavioral data did not exhibit any overt indication of a classical local switch cost. However, in light of the current findings regarding alpha oscillatory processes and as suggested by a reviewer, we sought to probe deeper into the behavioral data in order to explore the relationship of the relative

behavioral success of a given task-set reconfiguration to the current findings in the oscillatory domain. Certainly prior work has shown links between the effectiveness of alpha-band deployment mechanisms and subsequent task success (Thut et al., 2006; Kelly et al., 2009). To do this, we undertook a post hoc analysis in which we sorted individual trials based on RT. On an individual participant basis, we split learn more experimental trials based upon the median RT within a given condition (i.e. repeat-auditory, switch-auditory, repeat-visual and switch-visual). Dividing each of these original four conditions by the median of the RT distribution yielded what we will refer to as ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ conditions for each participant and for each of the original conditions. The reasoning behind this approach is that a fast-switch trial reflects a more successful task-set reconfiguration than a slow-switch trial. This comes with the necessary caveat that a raw RT value on any given trial is by no means a direct index of successful task-set reconfiguration. That is, a relatively fast response on a switch

trial is not a pure index ifenprodil of a successful switch but necessarily indexes the multiple underlying neural events that give rise to the stochastic nature of RT. Thus, in an attempt to bolster the relevance of fast and slow trials to the successful instantiation of a new task set, we performed the following additional analysis. First, both hit trials (a correct response on a go trial) and false alarm (FA) trials (a mistaken response on a no-go trial) were included in the RT distributions of each of the experimental conditions. Next, after performing the median splits of these distributions, the proportion of hits relative to false alarms was calculated [i.e. hits/(hits + FAs)] yielding what we will refer to as the success rate. Behavioral success rates were then submitted to a 2 × 2 × 2 repeated-measures anova with factors of Modality (visual vs. auditory), Trial (switch vs. repeat) and Speed (fast RTs vs. slow RTs).

55, P = 0032), Time (F1,15 = 526, P = 0037) and Region (F1,15 

55, P = 0.032), Time (F1,15 = 5.26, P = 0.037) and Region (F1,15 = 6.45, P = 0.023), and a Deforolimus order Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over

the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.97, P = 0.06). The within-modality anova revealed a main effect of Trial (F1,15 = 5.55, P = 0.032) and a Trial × Time × Region (F1,15 = 8.23, P = 0.012) interaction. Region-specific tests confirmed that a trend towards a Trial × Time interaction was only evident over the parietal-occipital scalp region (F1,15 = 3.98, P = 0.06). The behavioral data did not exhibit any overt indication of a classical local switch cost. However, in light of the current findings regarding alpha oscillatory processes and as suggested by a reviewer, we sought to probe deeper into the behavioral data in order to explore the relationship of the relative

behavioral success of a given task-set reconfiguration to the current findings in the oscillatory domain. Certainly prior work has shown links between the effectiveness of alpha-band deployment mechanisms and subsequent task success (Thut et al., 2006; Kelly et al., 2009). To do this, we undertook a post hoc analysis in which we sorted individual trials based on RT. On an individual participant basis, we split KU-60019 experimental trials based upon the median RT within a given condition (i.e. repeat-auditory, switch-auditory, repeat-visual and switch-visual). Dividing each of these original four conditions by the median of the RT distribution yielded what we will refer to as ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ conditions for each participant and for each of the original conditions. The reasoning behind this approach is that a fast-switch trial reflects a more successful task-set reconfiguration than a slow-switch trial. This comes with the necessary caveat that a raw RT value on any given trial is by no means a direct index of successful task-set reconfiguration. That is, a relatively fast response on a switch

trial is not a pure index Cell press of a successful switch but necessarily indexes the multiple underlying neural events that give rise to the stochastic nature of RT. Thus, in an attempt to bolster the relevance of fast and slow trials to the successful instantiation of a new task set, we performed the following additional analysis. First, both hit trials (a correct response on a go trial) and false alarm (FA) trials (a mistaken response on a no-go trial) were included in the RT distributions of each of the experimental conditions. Next, after performing the median splits of these distributions, the proportion of hits relative to false alarms was calculated [i.e. hits/(hits + FAs)] yielding what we will refer to as the success rate. Behavioral success rates were then submitted to a 2 × 2 × 2 repeated-measures anova with factors of Modality (visual vs. auditory), Trial (switch vs. repeat) and Speed (fast RTs vs. slow RTs).

Active renal secretion of TFV across proximal tubules occurs via

Active renal secretion of TFV across proximal tubules occurs via uptake from the circulation into the basolateral side of tubules by human organic anion transporters 1 and 3 (hOAT1 and

hOAT3) coupled with efflux out of the apical side of tubules into urine by multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) [34] and MRP2 [35] (although the role of the latter transporter at the renal tubule remains controversial [34]). In vitro cell-based transport models have shown that APV has minimal effects on hOAT1 and hOAT3 (20% inhibition when given at APV therapeutic Cmax) [34]. Its effects on MRP4 and MRP2 have not been evaluated to date. As the minor hOAT1 and hOAT3 effects do not explain the small decrease in TFV Cmin and AUC we saw during FPV or FPV/RTV coadministration with TDF, it is probable that the interaction responsible for this overall pharmacokinetic change occurs at the gut level. TDF, but not LY2109761 in vivo TFV, is a substrate for the intestinal efflux transmitter P-glycoprotein (P-gp)

Selleck ABT 199 [9], which APV may induce [36], thereby reducing TFV absorption. TFV Cmax was the pharmacokinetic parameter most reduced during coadministration, yet the maximum decrease was by only 25%, as noted following concurrent use of the unboosted FPV regimen with TDF. The reduction in TFV Cmin and AUC was less during the TDF+FPV/RTV period relative to the TDF+ unboosted FPV period, possibly because the P-gp-inhibitory effect of RTV may have partially counteracted the P-gp-induction effect of APV. TPV and NFV also induce intestinal P-gp [36,37], while ATV and LPV markedly inhibit P-gp [38], contributing to their TFV exposure-elevating effects.

It is unclear why TDF coadministration would increase APV concentrations, as TDF does not affect cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism [9], the primary metabolic pathway for APV, nor does it affect P-gp [39,40], for which APV is a substrate. The increase in APV plasma concentrations during TDF coadministration is in contrast to the reduction in ATV and LPV concentrations seen when unboosted ATV, ATV/RTV or LPV/RTV is given with TDF [13,26,28], which is postulated to occur because of a physicochemical reaction these PIs have with TDF at Phospholipase D1 the time of their absorption in the intestine [11]. The combination of TDF with either FPV or FPV/RTV was well tolerated, with no unexpected adverse events observed. In the study as a whole, we noted a high incidence of maculopapular rash (38%) in various dosing cohorts: FPV alone (n=6), TDF/FPV (n=4), TDF/FPV+RTV (n=4) and FPV/RTV (n=1). The high frequency of rash in our study is in stark contrast to the low rates reported in the ALERT trial which evaluated TDF–FPV/RTV among HIV-infected patients [4], but it is consistent with reports of other pharmacokinetic trials of FPV in healthy volunteers [19,41].

During the period, 185 children (122 families) attending the cent

During the period, 185 children (122 families) attending the center for pre-travel advice agreed

to participate. One hundred sixty-seven (90%) children (109 families) were evaluated by the post-travel questionnaire. Three (2%) children had cancelled their journey and 15 (8%) IWR-1 ic50 were unobtainable for follow-up. Sex ratio was 1.0 and mean age 68 (SD = 54) months. Ninety-nine (54%) children traveled to Africa, 48 (26%) to Indian Ocean, 18 (10%) to Asia, and 20 (11%) to South America. The five most visited countries were the Comoros (22%), Senegal (18%), Kenya (8%), Cameroon (7%), and French Guyana (5%). The mean duration of travel was 29 days (SD = 19). One hundred eighty-three (99%) children were born in France, but only 103 (56%) had European maternal ascendance. Thirty-seven (20%) of the children lived with only one of the parents (monoparental families) and 41 (22%) children had state health insurance. One hundred two children (55%) were VFR and 83 (45%) were traveling for tourism. As shown in Table 1, VFR children significantly differed from tourists in age (younger), maternal origins (outside Europe), family structure (monoparental), health insurance (state insurance), siblings (higher number), destination (Indian Ocean), housing during travel (local housing), duration

of the stay (longer), and time NVP-LDE225 solubility dmso between pre-travel visit and departure (shorter). Table 2 reports the compliance with prophylactic measures among the 167 post-travel evaluated children. Only 75 (41%) children were already fully

immunized with routine vaccines.[7] Differences were observed in vaccine coverage: 84% for diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, or Haemophilus influenzae type B, but Sitaxentan 54% for hepatitis B. A routine vaccine update and travel-specific vaccines were proposed to 74 (40%) and 132 (71%) children, respectively. Among the 167 children for whom vaccination was recommended, 118 (71%) were fully compliant. Yellow fever vaccine was accepted in 100% of cases. Acceptance rates of hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and Bacillus Calmette Guérin immunizations were 75, 77, and 36%, respectively. Parents’ reasons for not going ahead with prescribed vaccinations (49 children) were: cost of vaccines (12%), fear of adverse events (12%), neglect of vaccination (6%), perceived inefficacy of vaccines (4%), or lack of time before departure (2%). One hundred sixty-one (87%) children were prescribed antimalarials: atovaquone-proguanil (46%), mefloquine (40%), doxycycline (9%), chloroquine (2%), and chloroquine plus proguanil (2%). Of those children 147 (91%) were evaluated on their return. All had used at least one form of protection against arthropod bites (repellent 95%, bed net 71%, or insecticides 54%) but only 46 (31%) children had used the three types of protection. The chemoprophylaxis was purchased for 136 (93%) children.

While ATIV currently is licensed only

for older adults (e

While ATIV currently is licensed only

for older adults (except in Mexico, where the vaccine also is registered for use in children as of 6 months of age), plans are underway to extend the registration of the vaccine to children and other groups at risk in Europe and elsewhere, to address gaps of reduced immunogenicity and click here efficacy of TIV in those respective groups. Physician and public education are needed to increase awareness of the burden of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions and the potential clinical utility of ATIV for travelers to those regions. T. F. T. and R. C. are full-time employees of Novartis Vaccines. The other authors state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon manifestation of neurocysticercosis (NCC). We present a case of isolated lumbar intradural-extramedullary NCC. The patient was treated successfully with the surgical removal of the cyst. Spinal NCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk populations with new symptoms suggestive of a spinal mass lesion. A 59-year-old

Asian American female presented in January 2009 with a 1-month history of progressive bilateral leg pain, numbness, and weakness. The patient also developed urinary retention 2 days prior to presentation. The patient had immigrated from Laos to the United States in 1987 and used to return periodically to Laos, every 1 to http://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-809.html 2 years. She had traveled to Pakse, Laos, and then crossed the border to Ubon Amino acid Ratchathani, Thailand, in late 2008. Altogether she was in Laos, September to December 2008, she spent her time there in villages and cities, visiting family and friends. She used bottled water for drinking but ate the traditional fare, which included rare/uncooked beef and pork purchased at local outdoor markets. In the United States, she also sometimes ate uncooked beef and pork. She has a history of adult-onset diabetes mellitus, controlled with

oral medication, and is otherwise healthy. Before her recent trip, she had back pain progressing over several months, with some increased weakness and decreased sensation in the lower extremities. The symptoms became suddenly worse, however, the day after returning from her trip to Laos and progressed over the month before her admission to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed normal higher mental functions, optic fundi, cranial nerves, and deep tendon reflexes. She had mild weakness of both legs and the motor power was 4/5 in both hip and knee flexions. There was hypoesthesia in the left lower extremity in L1 to S3 distribution. The sensation of the right lower extremity was intact. The upper extremity examination was normal.

This result is consistent with analogous findings in non-invasive

This result is consistent with analogous findings in non-invasive brain stimulation studies in animals and humans that suggest that the response to transcranial stimulation is highly variable. In one recent lesion study using a feline model (Afifi et al., 2013), half the subjects positively responded to transcranial magnetic stimulation and half the subjects responded negatively,

and the dichotomy of the response was not reflected in the extent or the size of lesion. In humans, the response of the motor evoked potential amplitude to 1-Hz rTMS was similarly split: 75% of the participants displayed a decrease in the signal while 25% showed no change or an increase (Gangitano et al., 2002). Similar findings have been seen in studies of tDCS and depression (Loo et al., 2012). The biological basis of responsivity to transcranial stimulation Akt inhibitor Omipalisib research buy is an open question in need of resolution to achieve maximum efficacy. It is interesting to note

that the recovery of contralesional targets occurred in two phases. The basis of this recovery and whether each phase represents a different mechanism is unclear, although the time period between the two phases of recovery in the standard task is accompanied by a decrease in performance to targets in the ipsilesional hemifield in the more demanding laser and runway tasks. This finding suggests that tDCS may have done more than simply reduce aberrant hyperexcitability in the contralesional cerebral hemisphere. The posterior parietal cortex is critical for performance in the runway and laser tasks (Hardy & Stein, 1988; Afifi et al., 2013), and these data are consistent with the notion that tDCS is deactivating this cortex. This effect may best be considered a cost of this ultra-long

stimulation paradigm, and in this system the cost ultimately dissipated. However, this effect should be carefully considered during similar applications in the human, both as a potential side effect and also as an early signature of treatment response and a mechanism these which the lesioned hemisphere might require in order to adopt function. This is the first study to demonstrate that a 70-session tDCS regime to the contralesional (intact) brain hemisphere partially reverses lesion-induced deficits. The recovery was limited to moving stimuli located in the periphery of the contralateral visual hemifield, and occurred in two phases. A potential cost of the stimulation to intact targets was noted, but was minor and disappeared during the later phases of the stimulation regimen. These data indicate that increasing the number of tDCS sessions may improve the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation. This study was supported by NIH NS062317 (AV-C and RJR) and the FP68 ANR eraNET-NEURON “Beyondvis” and DRCD & AP-HP-PHRC Regional “Neglect” grants (AV-C). We thank Dr Linda Afifi for assisting with surgeries and behavioral training.

This research has

This research has R428 datasheet been supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery grant to C.K.Y. E.M.V. was supported by a Canada Graduate Scholarship from NSERC. “
“Filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus Thiothrix are able to respire nitrate () under

anaerobic growth. Here, Thiothrix caldifontis (G1T, G3), Thiothrix unzii (A1T, TN) and Thiothrix lacustris AS were shown to be capable of further reduction of nitrite and/or nitrous oxides (denitrification). In particular, in the genomes of these strains, excluding T. unzii TN, the nirS gene encoding periplasmic respiratory nitrite reductase was detected, and for T. lacustris AS the nirS expression was confirmed during anaerobic growth. The nirK gene, coding for an alternative nitrite reductase, and the nrfA gene, encoding nitrite reduction to ammonia, were not found in any investigated strains. All Thiothrix species capable of denitrification possess the cnorB gene encoding cytochrome c-dependent NO reductase but not the qnorB gene coding for quinol-dependent NO reductase. Denitrifying capacity (‘full’ or ‘truncated’) can vary between strains belonging to the same species and correlates with physical-chemical parameters of the environment such as nitrate, hydrogen sulfide find more and oxygen concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of recent horizontal transfer events for narG and nirS; however, cnorB

was subjected to gene transfer before the separation of modern species from a last common ancestor of the Thiothrix species. “
“Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biofilm-associated infections. Interactions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

(PBMCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages with planktonic or biofilm phase S. epidermidis cells were Montelukast Sodium studied. Biofilm phase bacteria exhibited higher attachment, as well as, a 10-fold higher intracellular survival in monocyte-derived macrophages than their planktonic counterparts. Stimulation of PBMCs and monocyte-derived macrophages was performed with live or formalin-fixed bacterial cells. Supernatant concentration of selected cytokines was measured by Luminex®xMAP™ technology at different time points. As compared to planktonic phase, biofilm phase bacteria elicited lower amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and Th1 response cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ, whereas they enhanced production of IL-8, GM-CSF and IL-13. This phenomenon was independent of formalin pretreatment. Taken together, these results may contribute to interpretation of observed silent course of biofilm-associated infections. The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biofilm-associated infections. Virulence is mainly attributed to ‘biomaterial surfaces colonization and biofilm formation’ (von Eiff et al., 2002).

Plasma samples were obtained at every visit for safety laboratory

Plasma samples were obtained at every visit for safety laboratory and VL analyses. VL was routinely measured using the Roche Cobas TaqMan assay, which was subsequently shown to perform differently from the Roche Cobas Amplicor Ultrasensitive HIV-1 test (Roche Diagnostics, Risch, Switzerland). Data suggested that, at a low VL (< 48 copies/mL), the TaqMan assay may report detectable VL results at a higher frequency than the Amplicor test [15]. As the trial design was based on the test performance of the Amplicor test, plasma samples with TaqMan results ≥48 copies/mL and ≤200

copies/mL after randomization to week 24 inclusive were assayed using the Amplicor Ultrasensitive assay, in order to provide an Amplicor-based endpoint result. If the Amplicor Ultrasensitive assay detected virus (VL ≥ 50 copies/mL), buy Navitoclax the samples obtained before and after the index sample were also tested using the Amplicor Ultrasensitive assay. The VL recorded for the patient was the result using the Amplicor assay, whenever it was performed. For visits PF-02341066 purchase where the Amplicor assay was not performed, the result from the TaqMan assay was recorded. The primary study

endpoint was the proportion of patients with continued virological response (< 50 copies/mL) at week 24, using the combined Amplicor–TaqMan results. Patients were classed as having treatment failure at the first occurrence of any one of the following: two consecutive VLs of ≥50 copies/mL at least 2 weeks apart; missing VL measurement at week 24; change in background antiretroviral (ARV) therapy other than because of adverse events (AEs); death; loss to follow-up; or study discontinuation. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of patients with a continued virological response using a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of <400 copies/mL (as

measured by Cobas Amplicor and Cobas TaqMan assay), and time to loss of virological response. Analyses were also performed where only the TaqMan data were used to define VL. Treatment adherence monitoring of study medication (tablet count and duration of medication intake) was performed using an adherence worksheet where tablet Oxalosuccinic acid counts and treatment interruptions were documented. Adherence was calculated as the actual number of pills taken divided by the number of pills that should have been taken. AEs, serious AEs (SAEs) including AIDS-defining events, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS) grade 3 or 4 AEs, laboratory abnormalities and change in baseline laboratory values to week 24 were recorded. When rashes that were possibly related to NVP or hepatic AEs occurred, specific rash and hepatic electronic case report forms were completed. Patients were assessed for changes in haematology, liver enzymes, bilirubin, coagulation parameters, renal function, glucose, amylase and lipase, and triglycerides.